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Transcript of Rocks
* Sedimentary rocks form from particles deposited by water & wind.
.There are three major group of rocks: igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock
A coral reef is made out of microscopic creature's skeleton.
When coral animals die, their skeletons remain, and more corals build on top of them.
There are three types of reefs, fringing, barrier, and atolls.
A coral reef is actually organic limestone.
Limestone that began as coral can be found on continents in places where uplift has raised ancient sea floors above sea level.
*Igneous rocks are formed by Magma and lava that hardens
*Igneous rocks are classified according to their orgin, texture, & mineral composition
* Geologists classify rocks according to where they are formed.
. Igneous rocks are classified according to
their origin, texture and mieral composition
* Extrusive rocks are Igneous rocks formed from lava that erupted onto Earth's surface.
* Basalt is the most common Extrusive rock.
* Intrusive rocks are Igneous rocks that are formed when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
* Granite is the most abundant intrusive rock in the part of the crust that makes up the continents. Granite forms the core of many mountain ranges.
* Extrusive rocks have a fine-grained or a glassy texture.
* Porphyritic rocks form when intrusive rocks form in 2 stages.
* Basalt contains feldspar as well as certain dark-colored minerals, but does not contain Quartz.
* Magma that is high in Silica usually forms light-colored rocks, as Granite.
* Sediment is small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things. Water, wind, and ice can carry sediment & deposit it in layers.
* Heat, cold, rain, waves, & grinding ice can break down and wear away all the rocks on Earth's surface.
* In addition to particles of rock, sediment may include shells, bones, leaves, stems, & other remains of living things.
* There are 3 major groups of Sedimentary rocks: Clastic rocks, Organic rocks, & Chemical rocks.
* A clastic rock is a sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together.
* Organic rocks form where the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers.
* Chemical rocks forms when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize.
* 1 common Clastic rock is Shale.
* Shale forms from tiny particles of clay.
* For shale to form, water must deposit clay particles in very thin, flat layers, one on top of another.
* Sandstone forms from sand on beaches, on the ocean floor, in riverbeds, and in sand dunes.
*Puddingstone is a form of the clastic rock Conglomerate.
* Some sedimentary rocks contain a mixture of rock fragments of different sizes.
* Two important organic sedimentary rocks are coal & limestone.
* Coal forms from the remains on swamp plants buried in water.
Rocks From Reefs
* The hard shells of living things produce some kinds of limestone.
* Chalk is one type of limestone.
* Chalk forms from sediments made of the skeletons of microscopic living things found in the oceans.
* Chemical rocks can also form from mineral deposits left when seas or lakes evaporate.
* Rock salt is a chemical rock made of the mineral halite, which forms by evaporation.
* Gypsum is another chemical rock formed by evaporation.
* Large deposits of rocks formed by evaporation form only in dry climates.
The Rock Cycle
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Forces inside Earth and at the surface produce a rock cycle that builds, destroys, and changes the rocks in the crust.
The Rock Cycle can form many different pathways.
The rock cycle begins and ends with igneous rock.
* Heat & pressure deep beneath Earth's surface can change any rock into Metamorphic rock.
* While metamorphic rocks are forming, high temperatures change the size & shape of the grains, or mineral crystals, in the rock.
* Geologists classify metamorphic rocks by the arrangement of the grains that make up the rocks.
* Metamorphic rocks that have their grains arranged in parallel layers or bands are said to be foliated.
* one common foliated rock is slate.
* Marble & slate are two of the most useful metamorphic rocks.