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ORAL CANCER

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by

Monet Sheard

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of ORAL CANCER

LINKS AND CAUSES OF ORAL CANCER SIDE EFFECTS GENERAL BACKGROUND Oral cancer begins in the mouth, also called the oral cavity.

If oral cancer isn't diagnosed and treated in its early stages, it can spread, leading to chronic pain, loss of function, irreparable facial and oral disfigurement following surgery, and even death. If found early, oral cancer has a promising survival rate. Many people discover oral cancer only when it has metastasized to another location, most likely the lymph nodes of the neck and beyond, at which point the prognosis is poor. DESCRIPTION CHEMOTHERAPY SIDE EFFECTS ORAL CANCER Oral cancer is cancer that occurs in any part of the mouth; on the tongue's surface, in the lips, inside the cheek, in the gums, in the roof and floor of the mouth, in the tonsils, and also the salivary glands.

Oral cancer is a type of head and neck cancer, and is often treated similarly to other head and neck cancers. TREATMENTS ORAL CANCER: html://www.oralcancer.org/description_oral_cancer/not-real-site-lol. CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIATION:
-Chemotherapy: given to shrink the cancer before surgery or radiation treatment. Often,it is used together w/ radiation to shrink tumors that can't be removed with surgery.
-Targeted therapy: works w/ the cell growth factor receptors that can be found on oral cancer cells. It blocks the receptors thereby making the cells less likely to reproduce.
-Radiation therapy: uses high-energy rays or particles to destroy cancer cells or slow their rate of growth.
-External radiation : carefully focus a beam of radiation from a machine outside the body.
-Brachytherapy: (internal radiation) the placing of metal rods that contain radioactive materials in/near the cancer.


SUGERY:
-Mandible resection:tumor will be surgically removed with a piece of the jaw bone
-Maxillectomy: hard palate is taken to decrease the chance of recurrence.
-Mohs' micrographic surgery: the tumor is removed in thin slices.
-Laryngectomy: the larynx is removed to connect the windpipe to a hole in the neck for breathing.
-Neck dissection: lymph nodes are removed on 1 or both sides of neck through an incision in the neck.
-Pedicle: reconstruction of the area where the tumor was removed.
-Tracheostomy: a hole placed in the neck to bypass the tumor and allow comfortable breathing. Monet Sheard
12-19-12
Period 4/5 cancer of the mouth By: Monet Sheard SUGERY SIDE EFFECTS SWELLING
PAIN
TIREDNESS
WEAKNESS
DIFFICULTY TO SWALLOW, EAT, AND TALK DECREASED AMOUNT OF BLOOD CELLS
HAIR LOSS/THINNING
LOSS OF APPETITE
WEAKNESS
TIREDNESS
NAUSEA
DIARRHEA
VOMITING RADIATION THERAPY SIDE EFFECTS TIREDNESS
WEAKNESS
LOSS OF TASTE
CAVITIES
DRY MOUTH
SKIN IRRITATION
HAIR LOSS GENERAL SIDE EFFECTS OF ORAL CANCER DRY MOUTH
TOOTH DECAY
MOUTH SORES
BLEEDING GUMS
JAW STIFFNESS
FATIGUE IMPACT ON THE INDIVIDUAL & OTHERS Psychologically Emotionally Financially Mood Swings
At times, the individual may notice that they don’t have control of their emotions, and they may cry about minor things. Irritability
The individual is more easily frustrated and annoyed than usual. It is harder to tolerate frustrations that they usually manage easily Depression Being told that the individual needs treatment for their cancer may arouse these fears:
~the cancer cannot be cured
~they might be left with very bad sickness. These are fears based on myths that simply don’t apply today. Treatment: -Difficulty concentrating
While going through therapy, some people complain of having trouble remembering things, reading books and newspapers, and concentrating on their usual work. Fear of death.
Changes in life plans.
Changes in body image and self-esteem.
Changes in day to day living.
Money and legal concerns. A person diagnosed with cancer faces many stressful issues. These may include: Cancer imposes heavy economic burdens on both patients and their families Factors/Links that can increase your risk of oral cancer include: Oral cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are twice as common in men as in women. This difference may be related to the use of alcohol and tobacco, a major oral cancer risk factor that is seen more commonly in men than women. The average age at diagnosis for oral cancer is , and two-thirds of individuals with this disease are over age 55. About 80% of people diagnosed use tobacco in the form of cigarettes, chewing tobacco or snuff. TOBACCO About 70% of people diagnosed are heavy drinkers. ALCOHOL For people who smoke and drink heavily, the risk of oral cancer may be as high as 100% more than the risk for people who do not smoke or drink. Studies have found a link between diets low in fruits and vegetables and an increased oral cancer risk. POOR NUTRITION (sexually transmitted virus) 64 percent of cancers of the oral cavity in the U.S. are caused by human papillomavirus infection (HPV) Human papillomavirus (HPV) CAUSES GENETIC PREDISPOSITION VIRUSES RADIATION CHEMICALS Because a close family member has cancer you have a high probability of developing cancer too. Human Papillomavirus (HPV): sexually transmitted virus Viruses invade a host cell & alter the cell's genetic coding, causing mutation. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) weakens immune system EXAMPLES: Genetic predisposition is an inherited risk of developing a disease or condition. The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles. WHAT IS RADIATION? Radiation can disrupt the structure of the molecules that make up the cells of our bodies by removing electrons from the stable, healthy, molecules, thus making them unstable, and threatening the DNA building blocks of our entire bodies. When DNA is disrupted, cells can replicate inappropriately, causing cancerous cells, which can lead to cancer & death. WHAT IS GENETIC PREDISPOSITION? A mutagen is a substance or agent that induces heritable change in cells or organisms.
The cause of mutations is usually some form of damage to DNA or chromosomes that results in some change that can be seen or measured. Carcinogens are cancer-causing agents WHAT IS A MUTAGEN? WHAT IS A CARCINOGEN? Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Extended sun exposure to your lips without a broad spectrum Sun Protection Factor (SPF) can increase your risk of oral/ lip cancer Exposure to sun Who is affected? Who is affected? 62 POTENTIAL CURES! A research team in the UK has found a protein in the mouth that boosts cancer cell growth in the head and neck. The protein activates a process that helps oral cancer cells group and stick together. The higher the protein levels, the higher the risk that the cancer will spread and come back. When they suppressed the creation of the protein in mice, the cancer stopped growing completely. http://frisco-dentist-blog.com/2012/07/potential-treatment-option-mouth-cancer/ If you find the oral lesion before it metastasizes, the cancer can be cured. Cure is directly related to the stage of the lesion at the time it is diagnosed: Stage 1 has a cure rate of 80 percent, stage 4, less than 18 percent. LOOK FOR SIGNS BEFOREHAND TO STOP IT GREAT JOB! CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS! On average, total annual health care spending during the year following diagnosis was $79,151 Treating oral cancer is expensive, costing more than $100,000 per person, surgery and chemotherapy are the big expenses. Nationally, the cost of treating people who have oral cancer runs nearly $2 billion a year. Families will go into deep dept paying for treatment -Impatience
they may be inpatient and give up all hope of getting better. Oral Cancer has a long lasting impact among patients psychologically,emotionally, and financially. Other Important Information Symptoms Patches inside your mouth or on your lips that are white, a mixture of red and white
A sore on your lip or in your mouth that won't heal
Bleeding in your mouth
Loose teeth
Difficulty or pain when swallowing
Difficulty wearing dentures
A lump in your neck
An earache A benign tumor is a tumor that lacks the ability to metastasize. Not cancerous malignant tumors have two goals in life: to survive and to conquer new territory. a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body. The process by which cancer spreads from the place at which it first arose as a primary tumor to distant locations in the body. Metastasis Benign Malignant Close to 40,000 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. It will cause over 8,000 deaths, killing roughly 1 person per hour, 24 hours per day. facts: In 2009, around 4,100 men and 2,150 women were diagnosed with oral cancer. Around half of patients diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity will survive their disease for at least five years. Oral Cavity the end :) stem cells These cells then attack the cancer cells that they see as foreign--thereby "curing" the patient of the cancer. -Today when we eat meat, poultry and dairy, we eat the residue of everything the animal ate, including growth hormones, pesticides and contaminants. -The containers they're stored in can leach toxic chemicals such as BPA, styrene &vinyl chloride. Some chemicals that cause oral cancer include: Aspartame is absorbed by the buccal mucosa of the mouth, gums, and the tongue-making it even more dangerous than if injected intravenously.
Aspartame Sodium Fluoride The most popular toothpastes contain enough fluoride in four ounces to kill a small child within 2 to 4 hours One of the main ingredients in rat poison and toothpaste DYK?? (popular in gum)
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