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Central Nervous System

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jessica delgado

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of Central Nervous System

CNS Central Nervous System Consists of Brain And Spinal Cord It occupies the dorsal body cavity and acts as the integrating and command centers of the nervous system interprets incoming sensory information and issues instructions based on condition and past experiences During embryonic development the CNS first appears as a simple tune, the neural tube, which extends down the dorsal median plane of the developing embryo's body By the fourth week the anterior end of the neural tube expands and the brain begins to form The central canal of the neural tube becomes enlarged in four regions of the brain The rest of the tube becomes the spinal cord Cerebral Hemispheres Th paired cerebral hemispheres collectively called cerebrum ridges of tissue called gyri; are separated by shallow grooves called sulci
deeper grooves are called fissures Other fissures or sulci divide each cerebral hemisphere into a number of lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal Cerebral Cortex Functions: speech, memory, logical, emotional response, consciousness, interpretation of sensations and voluntary moment Functional Anatomy of the Brain The primary somatic sensory area is located in the parietal lobe. Impulses traveling through the body are localized and interpreted Primary motor area allows us to consciously move our skeletal muscles; located in the frontal lobe Cerebral White Matter Corpus Callosum connects the cerebral hemispheres; arches above the structure of the brain stem allow the cerebral hemisphere to communicate with one another. Basal Nuclei "Islands" of gray matter; buried deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres help regulate voluntary motor activities by modifying instructions sent to the skeletal muscles by the primary motor cortex Diencephalon
Major structures: Thalamus- encloses the shallow third ventricle of the brain Hypothalamus: makes up the floor of the diendephalon. Helps regulate body temperature, water balance, and metabolism.
It drives emotions such as thirst, appetite, sex, pain and pleasures The epithalamus: forms the roof of the third ventricle Brain Stem
Major Structures Midbrain- extends from the mammillary bodies to the pons .
Its composed primarily of two bulging fiber tracts the cerebral peduncles.

Corpora quadrigemina are four rounded protrusions, they are reflex centers involved with vision and hearing. Brain Stem... Pons- rounded structures that protrudes just below the midbrain.
It has important nuclei involved in controlling breathing Medulla Oblingata: the inferior part of the brain.
Contains many nuclei that regulate vital visceral activities. Protection of the Central Nervous System -Nervous tissue is very soft and delicate and can be injured by the slightest pressure.
-it is protected by skull and vertebral column, membranes and a watery cushion.
-It is also protected by harmful substances in the blood. Protection of
CNS Meninges Dura mater:
outermost layer is the double layered membrane that surrounds the brain internal layer, it clings to the surface of the brain arachnoid mater:
middle layer it is web-like pia mater: Cerebrospinal Fluid Blood Brain Barrier The CSF forms a watery cushion that protects the nervous tissue, it circulates in the arachnoid space, ventricles, and the central canal of the spinal cord. it excludes many potentially harmful substances but is useless against fats, respiratory gases and other fat soluble molecules Spinal Cord extends from the foramen magnum of the skull to the first or second lumbar vertebra. 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord Spinal Cord Internal gray matter is mostly in cell bodies
dorsal horns
anterior horns
central canal Spinal Cord White Matter of the Spinal Cord white matter: is composed of myelinated fiber tracts it divided into 3 regions
Ventral Columns Homeostatic Imbalances Alzheimer's disease- progressive degenerative disease of the brain which results in mental deterioration. Most patients exhibits memory loss, short attention span and disorientation and eventual language loss. Alzheimer's Disease Homeostatic imbalances Traumatic Brain Injuries Credit information came from Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology images came from Google Images
videos came from YouTube. Anatomy Of The spinal Cord
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