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Transcript of Learning Theories
Metacognition is a process where we think about our thinking and learn how to learn. Making deliberate decisions on tackling a task from start to finish, be self-questioning, use knowledge strategically, plan how to complete tasks, check our progress then evaluate the outcome. (Livingstone, 1997).
The North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL, 1995) decribes three basic tactics for using metacognition :
COM10003 - Group 1
1. Developing a plan (Before)
2. Keeping track (During), and
3. Evaluate (After)
Definition of theory
Advantages of theory
Disadvantages of theory
Personal experience of theory
Application of theory
The transmissionist model of learning can be described as teacher/lecturer-student led lessons. It implies that “teachers are trying to transfer information directly to students’ minds by chalk-and-talk lectures and through the use of the textbook or information technology (IT)” (Westwood, 1998 p. 81)
Constructivist theory believes that all learners create or construct their own learning, by adding knowledge to their established schema. This theory was developed by Lev Vygotsky and involves understanding through our own experiences and then reflecting on them
This theory helps learners to organize, build and construct their own knowledge based on what they have learnt. It promotes learning through collaboration, knowledge sharing and cognitive growth.
As Feldman cites, Cognitivism is "the psychology of learning which emphasizes human cognition or intelligence as a special endowment enabling man to form hypotheses and develop intellectually". Cognitivism involves examining learning, memory, problem solving skills, and intelligence. (Feldman, 2010)
This provides a very direct and clear way for information to be delivered.
It follows and completes the behaviorist perspective, giving importance to the brain and mental processes, acknowledging that the "process of learning" is more important than the end product. Students have the ability to use their memory to recall information that they already know and link it to what they are learning. This makes it easier for them to process and memorize the new information that they learn.
It enables the teacher to present information, demonstrate processes and conduct thoughtful discussions to a mass of people at one time.
Disadvantages of using this theory is it disregards emotional factors such as motivation and the effect it has in the learning process, focusing only on the “brain power”.
Learning is based on using previous knowledge without considering the fact that some students may not have that previous knowledge.
Teachers writing on the whiteboard, using schemes, flash cards, diagrams and other representative figures to brainstorm the main ideas and concepts, sequencing and practicing information often so it will go into long term memory. Teachers using “formulas”, to solve problems, especially in subjects like maths, physics, etc which will lead students to the solution.
The use of technology, especially powerpoint slides to refer to the subject of learning. Also, flash cards, video clips and movies which refer to the subject rather than verbally discussing it.
"It does not enable students to make meaning for themselves through their own actions and through discussions with others " (Westwood, 1998 p.81).
In conclusion, we focused on the explanation of those theories that really had a strong impact over the last century with their researches on human development and learning acquisition as a process. Our understanding and ideas about the learning process come from different perspectives and by briefly discussing them, we gained insight on how we can implement these theories in the future as part of our classroom management.
When considering all the learning theories, researches and ideas, these help us to develop a better understanding of the process of learning itself, as well as reflecting on our own teaching practices to enhance the learning of all students (Mergel, 1998).
Over the last century or so, behavioural theorists have always been fascinated by humans and the way we learn and interact with one another. Some believe we are "blank slates" or "empty vessels" waiting to be filled with knowledge, whilst others like Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky believe we build on our knowledge via experiences and through meaningful discussion and collaboration with our fellow man.
The aim of this presentation is to explain some of these learning theories and to explore how these models of learning relate to us on a personal level as well as how these theories can be adapted to the digital age.
Westwood, P (1998). ‘
Effective teaching to reduce education failure
’ Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3,3, 1998: 4-12
However, it can be a very boring way to learn....
Technology “begins to move learning theories into a digital age” (Siemens, 2005). With information readily available at our fingertips, the teacher-student relationship is also changing. The teacher is no longer the main source of information but rather an authority on advising students on how to decipher credible and reliable sources of information.
“Navigation may well be the main form of literacy for the 21st century” (Seely Brown, 2004 pg. 14).
Video: Big Bang Theory, posted 2013 Teaching some science, published 3 August 2013,
Students will have to work through problems with no guidance and having to discover the conclusion on their own, as feedback and direction will not be available. Students will have a lack of direction.
Students can collaborate in groups, listening, agreeing/disagreeing with one other, and participate in discussions and activities that they are personally able to relate with.
What is social constructivism. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mflYp_Y9Zk
Constructivist learning theory
social constructivism. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=e47yFHexKYI
Being in a classroom environment, with a teacher standing in front of the class can conjure up many emotions and memories from being at school. This method of learning is used in schools everyday to give students a knowledge base to continue their academic journeys.
High quality teachers that give clear explanations "is one of the many ways in which students can be helped to construct meaning" (Westwood, 2004 pg.81)
Mergel, B 1998, " Instructional Design&Learning Theory, Retrieved from http://etad.usask.ca/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm#Learning Theories
Video, Use a learning Theory : Cognitivism. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=gugvpoU2Ewo
Feldman, Robert S. Child Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.
Looking at NCREL's 3 basic tactics, the advantages of metacognition can be seen in the processes we use when studying. By planning, checking and evaluating our thinking process, we train ourselves to think more efficiently and effectively about the way we think. The evaluation process allows us to make appropriate changes for next time (Livingstone, 1997). The success you have depends, ultimately, on how you think about it.
Using metacognition takes more time and effort to use effectively and efficiently. When we do not think about our thinking, we leave the outcome more to chance, when it is something we could have had more control of (Chew, 2011).
When we stop to think about the way we do something, we are being metacognitive. It is about our planning, progress checks and evaluating to see what could have been done to improve our work.
Livingston, J. (1997) Metacognition: An Overview State Univ. of New York at Buffalo: http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/cep564/Metacog.htm
Hacker, D. J. Metacognition: Definitions and Empirical Foundations The University of Memphis: http://www.psyc.memphis.edu/trg/meta.htm
Excerpted from Strategic Teaching and Reading Project Guidebook. (1995, NCREL, rev. ed.).
doi: 10.1177/1541344606295318Journal of Transformative EducationOctober 2006 vol. 4 no. 4 335-361
Seely Brown, J (2000).
Growing up Digital - How the Web Changes Work, Education, and the ways People Learn
Siemens, G 2013, 'Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age' <http://www.itdl.org/journal/jan_05/article01.htm>
Fienstien, S. From the Brain to the classroom. p.g 190-194. ABC-CLIO
Rhienhart, N (2012) Constructivist Learning Theory: pros and cons. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/76645-pros-and cons-of-constructivist-learning-theory
A learning theory that consists on the belief that we connect new knowledge (produced by educators) to our already existing knowledge. As if we are forming our own 'tree of knowledge' (Fienistien p190) with our own twigs and branches, all unique.
The advantages to Constructivist learning are that people with special needs can have their learning environment shaped to their needs, also that teachers do not have to just dole out information but are seen as more of a guide for their students learning journey. The teacher encourages the student and assists them in challenging ideas.
It is hard to have structure in a Constructivist learning setting, and even though some students excel in a setting where they have input into their learning others do not. Some people have the opinion that Constructivism should be integrated into the classroom learning but has to many flaws to be used solo.
When put into practice, Constructivism allows students to be actively involved, rather than just absorbing the information. The teacher guides the student in activities that are interactive and student-centered instead of lesson-centered.
Teaching in a way that is guiding and assisting your student, is allowing them to grasp the subject at their own pace, you develop a better connection with your student and the class as a whole.
As this learning theory allows for an individuals interest in learning choices, you are able to focus on what you want to learn about, building on what knowledge you already possess. It would probably be within a group and influenced socially, from the community and most likely around the family.