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The Onset of the Cold War

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by

Brian Jacobs

on 30 January 2012

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Transcript of The Onset of the Cold War

THE COLD WAR
A PERIOD OF CONFLICT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOVIET UNION, FROM ROUGHLY 1946 - 1990
1945...
THE FINAL YEAR OF WORLD WAR 2
TENSIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND THE USSR ARE ALREADY STRAINED
UNITED STATES
SOVIET UNION
WANTS ECONOMIC GROWTH FOR U.S. AND EUROPE.

BELIEVES THAT THE WORLDWIDE DEPRESSION WAS A MAJOR CAUSE OF WW2.

WANTS TO PROMOTE DEMOCRACY, FREEDOM, FREE ENTERPRISE, OPEN MARKETS, ETC.
WARY OF CAPITALISM.

WANTS TO KEEP GERMANY WEAK TO PREVENT FUTURE AGGRESSION.

WANTS TO CREATE A BUFFER ZONE BETWEEN THE USSR AND THE REST OF EUROPE.
THE WARTIME ALLIES BEGIN FACING OFF...
YALTA CONFERENCE, FEBRUARY 1945
PARTICIPANTS: WINSTON CHURCHILL, FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, JOSEF STALIN
THREE PRIMARY AGREEMENTS REACHED AT YALTA:
1. THE DECLARATION OF LIBERATED EUROPE
ALLIES AGREE TO ALLOW ALL NATIONS TO CHOOSE THEIR FORM OF GOVERNMENT WITH FREE ELECTIONS. THIS INCLUDES POLAND, WHERE THE SOVIETS HAD CREATED A COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT - HOWEVER, IT WOULD QUICKLY BECOME EVIDENT THAT THE USSR HAD NO INTENTION OF ALLOWING FREE ELECTIONS IN POLAND.
2. GERMANY OWES REPARATIONS TO THE USSR
MANUFACTURED GOODS, INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT, RAILROAD CARS, ETC. - EVERYTHING A COUNTRY WOULD NEED TO REBUILD ITS ECONOMY.
3. BOTH GERMANY AND BERLIN ARE TO BE DIVIDED INTO FOUR OCCUPATION ZONES
POTSDAM CONFERENCE, FEBRUARY 1945
PARTICIPANTS: CLEMENT ATLEE, HARRY TRUMAN, JOSEF STALIN
TRUMAN'S FOCUS - ECONOMIC RECOVERY FOR EUROPE
STALIN'S FOCUS - REPARATIONS FOR THE USSR
A COMPROMISE IS REACHED IN WHICH THE USSR WILL SEND FOOD TO GERMANY IN EXCHANGE FOR INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT.
TENSIONS CONTINUE TO RISE!
THE "IRON CURTAIN"
PRO-SOVIET GOVERNMENTS IN POLAND, ROMANIA, HUNGARY, BULGARIA, AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA
WINSTON CHURCHILL
U. OF MISSOURI, MARCH 1946
THE LONG TELEGRAM
FRUSTRATED BY THE SOVIET'S UNWILLINGNESS TO COOPERATE, THE STATE DEPARTMENT ASKS THE AMERICAN EMBASSY IN MOSCOW TO EXPAIN STALIN'S BEHAVIOR.
GEORGE KENNAN'S RESPONSE:
RUSSIAN INSECURITIES AND DISTRUST OF THE WEST; KENNAN CONCLUDED THAT THE SOVIET'S TRULY BELIEVED IN A LONG TERM HISTORICAL STRUGGLE OF COMMUNISM VERSUS CAPITALISM, AND AS SUCH, THERE WOULD BE NO WAY TO REACH A PERMANENT AGREEMENT.
HIS SUGGESTION WOULD BECOME U.S. STRATEGIC POLICY:
CONTAINMENT
POLICY OF MAINTAINING THE STATUS QUO, USE DIPLOMATIC, ECONOMIC, AND MILITARY ACTION TO PREVENT COMMUNISM FROM SPREADING TO ANY MORE COUNRIES.
EVIDENCE THAT KENNAN WOULD BE PROVEN RIGHT:
THE IRAN CRISIS, SPRING 1946
SOVIET UNION REFUSES TO REMOVE TROOPS FROM IRAN STATION THERE DURING WW2, AND DEMANDS ACCESS TO IRANIAN OIL FIELDS.
U.S. DEMANDS A WITHDRAWAL OF ALL SOVIET FORCES FROM IRAN, AND SENDS THE BATTLESHIP USS MISSOURI TO THE EASTERN MEDITERRANIAN.
SOVIET UNION CONCEDES, WITH THE PROMISE OF A CREATION OF A JOINT SOVIET-IRANIAN OIL COMPANY, A PLAN WHICH IRAN'S PARLIAMENT WILL LATER REJECT.
SOVIET UNION BEGINS MOVING IN ON THE MEDITERRANIAN
WHEN BRITAIN CAN NO LONGER AFFORD TO CONTINUE SUPPORTING GREECE, TRUMAN GOES BEFORE CONGRESS TO ASK FOR $400 MILLION TO FIGHT COMMUNISM IN TURKEY AND GREECE.
HIS SPEECH ESTABLISHES THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE, A PLEDGE TO FIGHT COMMUNISM WORLDWIDE BY SUPPORTING "ANY FREE PEOPLES WHO ARE RESISTING ATTEMPTED SUBJUGATION BY ARMED MINORITIES OR OUTSIDE PRESSURES."
THESE BECOME KNOWN AS "SATELLITE NATIONS" - COMMUNIST COUNTRIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOVIET UNION AND SOVIET POLICY
THE MARSHALL PLAN
AN ECONOMIC RECOVERY PROGRAM DESIGNED BY SECRETARY OF STATE GEORGE C. MARSHALL IN 1949
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN AID (INCLUDING MONEY, SUPPLIES, FOOD, MACHINERY) WOULD BE SENT TO HELP REBUILD THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY
FOREIGN AID WOULD HELP LESSEN THE APPEAL OF COMMUNISM, AND ALONG WITH THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE, THIS PLAN WAS SEEN AS ESSENTIAL TO THE SUCCESS OF CONTAINING COMMUNISM
THE BERLIN CRISIS
BELIEVING THAT THE USSR IS TRYING TO UNDERMINE GERMANY’S ECONOMY, THE ALLIES MERGE THEIR ZONES INTO WEST GERMANY AND WEST BERLIN.
WEST GERMANY DIDN’T HAVE IT’S OWN MILITARY, BUT IT WAS MORE OR LESS INDEPENDENT.
IN RESPONSE, THE SOVIETS BLOCKADE BERLIN IN JUNE 1948; U.S. MOVES STRATEGIC BOMB WINGS TO AIR BASES IN BRITAIN IN CASE OF THE OUTBREAK OF WAR.
BERLIN AIRLIFT IS LAUNCHED, FERRYING NEARLY 3 MILLION TONS OF SUPPLIES TO WEST BERLIN FROM JUNE 1948 UNTIL THE END OF THE BLOCKADE IN MAY 1949.
CAPITALISM VS. COMMUNISM
VS.
VS.
source: youtube.com/watch?v=qAyXXepUgrE
source: youtube.com/watch?v=N1xJiSPgs9Y
UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION
BASED IN NEW YORK CITY, IT CONTINUES TO EMERGE AS A VENUE TO AVOID AND DEFUSE INTERNATIONAL CRISES.
SOURCE: youtube.com/watch?v=o_1lNxo-Xec
USSR DEMANDS JOINT CONTROL OVER THE STRATEGICALLY - LOCATED DARDANELLES STRAITS WITH TURKEY, AND BEGINS SUPPORTING COMMUNIST GUERILLAS ATTEMPTING TO OVERTHROW GREECE'S GOVERNMENT.
TRUMAN SENDS THE AIRCRAFT CARRIER USS FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT TO JOIN THE MISSOURI IN DEFENDING TURKEY, WHILE BRITAIN SENDS TROOPS TO HELP FIGHT COMMUNISTS IN GREECE.
source: youtube.com/watch?v=lUd2W6aMng4
US POLICY TOWARD COMMUNISM:
CONTAINMENT
TRUMAN DOCTRINE
FIGHT COMMUNIST INFLUENCE AROUND THE WORLD
MARSHALL PLAN
SUPPORT ECONOMIC RECOVERY IN EUROPE TO LESSEN THE APPEAL OF COMMUNISM
+
SOURCE: youtube.com/watch?v=5GoIL9gVonQ
THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO) IS ESTABLISHED IN 1949, AS THE ALLIES BELIEVED THAT USSR WAS NOW BENT ON CONQUEST.
THE WARSAW PACT IS CREATED IN 1955 TO COUNTER NATO AFTER WEST GERMANY IS ALLOWED TO REARM AND IS ADMITTED INTO NATO.
A MILITARY ALLIANCE BETWEEN NORTH AMERICAN AND WESTERN EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES
NEW ALLIANCES FORM...
VS
NATO
WARSAW PACT
INITIAL MEMBERS:
Netherlands
Luxembourg
France
United Kingdom
United States
Canada
Portugal
Italy
Norway
Denmark
Iceland
INITIAL MEMBERS:
Soviet Union
Albania
Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia
Hungary
Poland
Romania
East Germany
GENERAL ASSEMBLY:
SECURITY COUNCIL:
REPRESENTATIVES FROM MEMBER NATIONS MEET TO DISCUSS INTERNATIONAL ISSUES.
RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY MATTERS, INCLUDING CRISES AND CONFLICTS.
MEMBER NATIONS TAKE TURNS FILLING THE 15 SEATS ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOVIET UNION.
THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR
TODAY'S GOALS:
EXPLAIN THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR AND ANALYZE AMERICA'S RESPONSE TO THE GROWING THREAT OF COMMUNISM FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II.
A CONTINUAL STATE OF MILITARY AND POLITICAL TENSION BETWEEN THE TWO SUPERPOWERS, WITHOUT DIRECT WARFARE BREAKING OUT BETWEEN THE TWO BELLIGERENTS.
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