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World History: World War II
Transcript of World History: World War II
France and Great Britain declared war on Germany - Sept. 3 - half of Poland taken by Hitler Poland France Italy Finland The Soviets make their move and Stalin sent troops into Finland(Fins outnumbered) - Nov. 1939 - Soviet finally won The Phony War Allied soldiers waited for the Germans at the France and Germany border
Germany turned back - sent a mixed signal
April 9, 1940 - war ended Lille, France
May 26, 1940 - German’s trapped Allied forces around Lille, France.
Great Britain sent 850 ships to rescue their army. France Battles Back France Falls Paris fell to the Germans - June 14, 1940
France surrendered - June 22
Charles de Gaulle Great Britain London Germany Attacks Britain Winston Churchill - British Prime Minister - his nation would never give in
Operation Sea Lion - Hitler’s plan to knock out the Royal Air Force and land 250,000 soldiers on England’s shore and invade Great Britain
Bombs daily - London
Allies learned Hitler's advances could be blocked Chapter 32: World War II By: Kaitlin Evans, Cindy Nguyen, and Jessica Zebas Mr. Propst
World History Africa Germany and Italy Attack North Africa Italy declared war on France and Great Britain and became Germany’s most important Axis ally
Mussolini’s goal - seize British-controlled Egypt Great Britain Strikes Back Dec. 1940 - British strike back - Italian disaster
Feb. 1941 - British swept 500 miles across North Africa
Hitler sent General Erwin Rommel to Libya to command a newly formed tank corps - Afrika Korps
March 24 - Surprise attack from Afrika Korps - British forces retreated 500 miles War in the Balkans Summer 1940 - Hitler planned to attack his ally - USSR - by the next spring
April 6, 1941 - Hitler invaded Yugoslavia and Greece - Yugoslavia fell in 11 days and Greece surrendered in 17 days Hitler Invades Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa - blitzkrieg invasion with German tanks and air crafts on June 22, 1941
Russians burned everything in the Germans’ path when they retreated
Sept. 8 - Germans in Leningrad destroyed warehouses of food and supplies killing and starving citizens Japan Japan Strikes in the Pacific The Surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor August 1940 - Americans cracked a Japanese secret code
Japan planned massive attacks in Southeast Asia and in the Pacific
Isoroku Yamamoto was Japan’s greatest naval strategist
Pearl Harbor - Japanese attack Hawaii The United States Aids its Allies Atlantic Charter
- a declaration of principles issued in August 1941 by British prime minister Winston Churchill and U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt, on which the Allied peace plan at the end of WWII was based Victories of Japanese Jan. 1942 - Japanese came into Manila, Philippines
Conquered Dutch East Indies in March, 1942
Asian Support - Japan tricked them and gave brutal treatment The Allies Strike Back The Battles of the Coral Sea - Airplanes did all the fighting and Japan won The Battles of Midway U.S. Pacific Fleet knew 150 Japanese ships were coming
U.S. outnumbered, but their strategy was a success Allies Go on the Offense Douglas MacArthur - commander of Allied land forces
Aug. 7, 1942 - 19,000 U.S. Marines and Australians land on Guadalcanal(Japanese airbase) and Japan was caught unprepared.
Hitler aimed at enslaving Europe’s people to work for Germany’s prosperity The Holocaust Begins 1933 - Nazi - persecution is now a government policy
1935 - Nuremberg Laws deprived Jews of their rights to German citizenship, jobs, and property
Nov. 9, 1938 - Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, business, and synagogues across Germany and murdered around 100 Jews.
Jewish shop windows were shattered - Kristallnacht
Jews were forced into emigrating
France didn’t want anymore Jews after 25,000 - British 80,000 - Latin America 40,000
Jews were segregated in ghettos with barbed wire and froze and starved with diseases Prisoners were randomly shot by killing squads
Jews not reached by killing squads were rounded up and taken to concentration camps Mass Extermination 1942 - Nazis built extermination camps with gas chambers - first 6 were in Poland
Gas chambers could kill 6,000 humans in one day
Largest camp - Auschwitz - separated the strong from the weak who would die in gas chambers the day they arrived and later were burned in ovens 6,000,000 Jews died in the camps and Nazi massacres
Less than 4,000,000 survived Hitler’s “Final Solution” Mass Killings The Survivors Section 2 Vocabulary Isoroku Yamamoto - Japan’s greatest naval strategist
Pearl Harbor - a harbor near Honolulu, on S Oahu, in Hawaii: surprise attack by Japan on the U.S. naval base another military installations December 7, 1941
Battle of Midway - a 1942 sea and air battle of WWII, in which American forces defeated Japanese forces in the central Pacific
Douglas MacArthur - commander of the Allied land forces in the Pacific
Battle of Guadalcanal - 1942 to 1943 battle of WWII, in which Allied troops drove Japanese forces from the Pacific island of Guadalcanal The Allies areVictorious Mobilizing For Total War December 22, 1941, Winston Churchill and president Roosevelt met at the White House to form a joint war policy.
Stalin had asked his Allies to relieve the pressure out on his army by the German armies.
Roosevelt was unsure at first, but in the end agreed.
Churchill urged Britain and the US to strike fast, which angered Stalin.
In late 1942, the allies began to turn the tide of war in the Mediterranean and Eastern Front. Defeating the Axis powers required mobilizing for total war.
Factories in the States converted from peacetime to wartime operations, making everything from machine guns to boots.
By 1944 almost 18 million U.S. workers, were working in war industries.
Factories were so busy producing war good, that there was a shortage of consumer good in the U.S.
To inspire people to greater efforts, Allied governments conducted very effective propaganda campaigns. The North African Campaign German forces had been advancing and retreating across the desert since 1941. General Erwin Rommel took the port city of Tobruk in 1942. With the fall of the port city, Britain sent their General Bernard Montgomery to take control of the British forces in North Africa.
Germans had advanced to an Egyptian village called El Alamein, they were dug so well that the British forces could not go around them. So Montgomery launched a massive attack.
On October 23, the battle commenced. But in the end Rommel lost, and retreated to the West.
As he was retreating, the Allies launched Operation Torch. D-Day By May 1944 the invasion force was ready: thousands of planes, ships, tanks, landing craft, and 3.5 million troops.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower planned to strike the coast of Normandy. The Germans had no idea when the attack would be launched.
To keep Hitler guessing they set up a dummy army, with headquarters and equipment and had a fake army attack.
The day chosen for the invasion to begin was June 6, 1944, D-Day.
At Dawn on June 6, British, American, French, and Canadian troops fought their way onto a 60 mile stretch of beach in Normandy. Turning Point at Stalingrad While Rommel had suffered defeat, German armies had met their match with the Soviet Union. The Germans suffered heavy losses that winter.
When summer of 1942 arrived, Germany was ready to roll again. Hitler sent his army south to seize the Caucasus Mountains. And to capture Stalingrad.
August 23, 1942, the Battle of Stalingrad began. Europe in Ruins The Blitz - 60,595 London civilians had died in the German bombings.
Warsaw had 1,289,000 - Soviets entered and 153,000 remained
Homes were destroyed so people had to live in partially destroyed homes and apartments while others huddled in caves and cellars beneath the rubble. Some fled. Misery Continues After the War Men went into the military and women worked in war productions
No more agriculture
In August 1945, about 4,000 citizens of Berlin died Postwar Governments and Politics Hitler escaped the Nuremberg Trial (they committed crimes against humanity killing 11 million people) by committing suicide
22 Nazi leaders charged - 12 were sentenced to death and 10 were hanged on October 16, 1946 The Effects of the Defeat in Japan The United States Occupies Japan August 15, 1945, Emperor Hirohito urged the Japanese people to lay down their arms and work together to rebuild Japan U.S. Occupation Brings Deep Changes Demilitarization in Japan 1945 - Japan surrendered
all citizens over 20 have the right to vote for Japan’s leader now
In the end, enemies are allies and allies are enemies MacArthur began demilitarization to stop future wars
U.S. sent 2 billion dollars in emergency relief to Japan United States THE END(: By November 1942, Germany controlled 90% of Stalingrad, which was mostly destroyed.
On November 19, 1942 Soviet troops on the outside of the city launched a counterattack. They closed in around Stalingrad and trapped the Germans inside, cutting off their supplies. Hitler’s commander begged for him to order a retreat, but Hitler refused.
On February 2, 1943, about 90,000 frostbitten and starved Germans surrendered to the Soviets.
After Stalingrad, the Germans were on the defensive side. The Invasion of Italy In January 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill decided to meet in Morocco, there they decided to attack Italy first.
On June 10, a total of 18,000 soldiers landed and captured Sicily
The conquest of Sicily toppled Mussolini from power.
The Germans soon after seized Italy and put Mussolini back in charge.
Allies entered Rome on June 4, 1944, the fighting continued until Germany fell in May 1945.
Germans retreated from Italy, the Italian resistance ambushed some trucks - found Mussolini disguised as a soldier on the inside.
The next day Mussolini was shot and his body hanged in the town square in Milan. Life on Allied Home Fronts Wherever the Allied forces fought, people rallied to support them. In countries like the Soviet Union and Great Britain, civilians lost their lives and endured many hardships.
Except for Hawaii, the United States did not suffer from the invasions or bombings, but Americans at home still helped the cause tremendously by producing weapons and equipment. Charles De Gaulle 1890 to 1970, French general and statesman.
He refused to accept Pétain's armistice with Germany(WWII) and founded the Free French movement in England (1940). Winston Churchill Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II.
Strongly believed in Great Britain Auschwitz Gas Chamber The Holocaust Vocab Aryans - Germanic people
Holocaust - mass slaughter of civilians especially Jews
Kristallnacht - “Night of Broken Glasses”
ghettos - segregated Jewish areas
"Final Solution” - Hitler’s plan to kill all of the Jews
genocide - systematic killing of an entire people
collaborators - people who assist an occupying enemy force General Bernard Montgomery Military general of London General Erwin Rommel One of Hitler's German officers Continued... On October 23, the battle commenced. But in the end Rommel lost, and retreated to the West.
As he was retreating, the Allies launched Operation Torch Europe in Ruins: Pictures Allied Victory in Europe Although the Allies were dealing with issues on the homefront, they were still preparing to push for victory in Europe.
By 1943 the Allies had began secretly building a force in Great Britain, they planned to attack the Germans across the English Channel. D-Day Continued... The Germans were very well suited with machine guns, rocket launchers, and cannons, not to mention a wall of concrete 3 feet thick to hide behind.
Among Americans alone, 3000 men died that day on the beach.
Despite the heavy casualties, the Allies held the enemy.
On July 25, the Allies pushed through Germany’s defense - Germans soon started retreating
On August 25, the Allies marched into Paris. By September, they liberated France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and a lot of the Netherlands. Their new focus was Germany. The Battle of the Bulge Allied forces moved towards Germany from the west, the Soviet army was advancing towards Germany from the East. Hitler now faced war on BOTH fronts.
On December 16, the German tanks broke through American defenses.
Although this caught the Allies off guard, they eventually pushed the Germans back and were victorious.
There was little the Nazis could do besides retreat Germany’s Unconditional Surrender After the Battle of the Bulge, the end of the war neared.
By the middle of April, 3 million Allied soldiers approached Berlin from the southwest, 6 million Soviet troops approached from the east. By April 25, 1945, the had surrounded the city.
As the fighting commenced, on April 29, Hitler prepared for his end. He married his longtime companion, Eva Braun, in underground headquarters beneath the city.
Two days later he shot himself after taking poison, his new wife just took poison. Their bodies were carried outside and then burned. Germany’s Unconditional
Surrender Continued On May 7 1945, General Eisenhower accepted Germany's surrender. President Roosevelt did not live to witness the victory.
On May 8, the surrender was officially signed in Berlin. The Allies celebrated V-E Day, Victory in Europe Day. Germany’s Unconditional Surrender After the Battle of the Bulge, the end of the war neared.
By the middle of April, 3 million Allied soldiers approached Berlin from the southwest, 6 million Soviet troops approached from the east. By April 25, 1945, they were surrounding the city.
As the fighting commenced, on April 29, Hitler prepared for his end. He married his longtime companion, Eva Braun, in underground headquarters beneath the city. Germany's Unconditional Surrender Continued... Two days later Hitler shot himself after his wife and him took poison. Their bodies were carried outside and then burned.
On May 7 1945, General Eisenhower accepted Germany's surrender.
President Roosevelt did not live to witness the victory.
On May 8, the surrender was officially signed in Berlin. The Allies celebrated Victory in Europe Day. Victory in the Pacific The Allies were still fighting the Japanese in the Pacific - didn’t last long.
After the victory at Guadalcanal the Japanese continued to retreat until the Allies counterattacked. The Allies Are Victorious: Vocabulary Erwin Rommel - German officer of Hitler’s
Bernard Montgomery - general of London
Dwight D. Eisenhower - American general
Battle of Stalingrad - German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union
D-Day - an invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944
Battle of the Bulge - German tanks broke American defenses alone an 85 mile front in the Ardennes
kamikaze - Japanese suicide pilots
beachheads - enemy shoreline captured just before invading forces move inland
capitulation - surrender
rationed - distributed on limited amounts
internment - detention The Devastation of Europe and Japan Section 1 Section 2 Section 4 Hitler and Eva Braun Section 5 The Atomic Bomb Brings Japanese Surrender The Devastation of Europe
and Japan Vocab Nuremberg Trials - 22 Nazi leaders were charged with waging a war of agression
demilitarization - disbanding the Japanese with only a small police force
barter - to trade goods and services without money Section 3 Troops headed to Japan. Truman had been informed that invading Japan might cost the Allies half a million lives, he was faced with the difficult decision of using the atomic bomb, or sending his men to die.
Truman warned the Japanese that unless they surrendered, they could expect a “rain of ruin from the air.” They did not respond.
August 6, 1945, the US dropped a bomb on Hiroshima. The city was inhabited by 365,000 people, 73,000 of them died that day. The Japanese Retreat By the fall of 1944, the Allies were moving into Japan. By October they had landed in the Philippines.
Their takeover would not be as easy as they planned - Japanese destroyed the American fleet.
October 23, the Japanese gambled everything in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Japanese lost horribly.
In March 1945, the US Marines took the island of Iwo Jima.
April 1, the US troops moved to the island of Okinawa. On June 22, the US Marines took Okinawa, ending the bloodiest battle of the war. Continued... August 9, 1945, another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. A city of 200,000 people, resulting in the death of 37,500.
The Japanese surrendered on September 2, the surrender took place on the US battleship, Missouri.
The war was over, but a new struggle had began, rebuilding the war-torn world.