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Two sides to Bullying

A look at the victim and offender in a bullying incident, the implications that follow, and strategies to prevent it.

Bethany Cumming

on 18 November 2012

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Transcript of Two sides to Bullying

Two Sides to the Story The Victim The Bully The Victim Family Influence Teacher Perceptions Understanding Bullies Understanding Bullies 27% middle school students and 10% secondary school students have been bullied 'sometimes' or 'more often' (Bowers, Smith & Binney 1992).
Victims who are targeted by bullies at school are inclined to be introverted, low self-esteem and lack of social skills (Rigby 2003; Tronc 2010).
http://www.tubechop.com/watch/634659 Post Bullying Victims can suffer from loss of confidence and self esteem in social relationships. they may isolate themselves to escape the torment at school (Bowers, Smith & Binney 194). 9
Victims quite often don't care if their bully gets punished (Tronc 2010).
All they want is the bullying to stop the feeling of depression, helplessness and the desperational thoughts of suicide to go away (Tronc 2010).
http://www.tubechop.com/watch/634654 Victimized children tend to spend more time with their parents then peers. Mothers of bully victims have been seen to be anxious and over involved with their child (Bowers, Smith & Binney, 1992)
A weak temperament, poor identification with father and mother's over protectiveness, can contribute to the likelihood of boys being victims (Bowers, Smith & Binney, 1994)
http://www.tubechop.com/watch/634664 Staff generally underestimate the number of students involved in frequent bullying Children who bully others typically feel little or no pride in their school and are not well integrated into the community (AIC, 2003) Bullying The Mediator Ken Rigby (University of South Australia) - “Six major intervention methods” in his article ‘Bullying Interventions in Schools: Six Major Approaches’. Strategies for Intervention Elements to Consider when Contemplating School-Based bullying: Bullying Prevention Many teachers are unaware of the seriousness Staff with greater efficacy for handling bullying situations were more likely to intervene without making situations worse REFERENCES Many students stated that teachers make the situation worse when they intervene The taller student was provoked in his actions. However, teachers don't think that
they make it worse This incident is the responsibility of those with duty of care. As a result, students rarely
report bullying to staff. They report
to friends instead Clearly the smaller student should be punished. Staff are also known to report
higher feelings of school safety
compared to students School safety has an influence on
bulling Teacher perceptions are way off! The Safe Schools and Communities Project (2012) defines bullying as repeated verbal, physical, social or psychological behaviour that is harmful and involves the misuse of power by an individual or group towards one or more persons. Teachers require more training (Bradshaw, Sawyer, O'Brennan & Lindsey, 2007; Tronc, 2010) Bradshaw, C.P., Sawyer, A. L., O'Brennan, L. M. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 361-382.
Bowers, L., Smith, P. & Binney, V. (1992). Cohesion and power in the families of children involved in bully/victim problems at school. Journal of Family Therapy, 14, 371-387
Bowers, L., Smith, P. & Binney, V. (1994). Perceived Family Relationships of bullies, Victims and bully/victims in Middle Childhood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 215-232.
Carr-Gregg, M., Manocha, R. (2011, March). Bullying: Effects, prevalence and strategies for detection. Adolescent Health, 40(3), p. 98- 102. Retrieved from http://www.racgp.org.au/download/documents/AFP/2011/March/201103carrgregg.pdf
Kowalski, R. & Limber, S. (2007). Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, s22-s30.
Rigby, K. (2003). Addressing Bullying in Schools: Practice and Theory. Australian Institute of criminology trends & issues in crime & criminal justice.
Safe Schools and Communities Project (2012). Bullying. No Way. Retrieved from http://www.bullyingnoway.com.au
Shaw, D., Hearn, T., Epstein, L., Monks, M., Lester, H., & Thomas, L., (2009). Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study (ACBPS). Perth: Child Health Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University.
Tronc, K. (2010). Taking School Bullies to court. Australian Educational Leader, 32 (2), 44-47). School Environment: Evidence Based 27% of year 4 to year 9 students experience bullying every few weeks or even more often. Often they mishandle their emotional reactions to the distress they cause by not experiencing appropriate feelings of shame (Rigby, 2003) -Restorative Justice/shame development 32% 29% Highest frequency of school bullying Students spend 60% of their time at school between the average age of 5-17 years old. As teachers/facilitators we have the responsibility to provide: a safe, respectful, welcoming environment for students The ethos that is developed at the school spread into the wider community through strategic policies and programs. Government Policy:

Peeters, M., Cillessen, A. H. N., & Scholte, R. H. J. (2010). Clueless or powerful? identifying subtypes of bullies in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(9), 1041-1052. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/734378273?accountid=10910 & Approach as a Teacher In severe cases the victim has been known to take their own lives (Bowers, Smith & Binney 1992).
Bullying and suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people, resulting in about 4,400 deaths per year.
Victims are between 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide.
http://www.tubechop.com/watch/634653 Normal adolescent development is characterised by a mismatch between fundamental drives and self regulatory skills which manifests as difficulty expressing thoughts and feelings, seeing another’s point of view and predicting the consequences of one’s actions. This explains why bullying occurs most frequently in late primary school and early high school, when this mismatch peaks (Carr-Gregg, & Manocha, 2011, p. 98). What we as future Middle School teachers need to do is understand what bullying is, who is affected by bullying, what challenges does bullying bring to our classrooms, whose needs must be considered and why does it occur? Bullies differ in their skills. They differ in their functions, and they each bully in order to acquire a specific outcome (Peeters, Cellessen & Scholte, 2010) Bullying is associated with a lack of faith in human nature (Peeters, Cellessen & Scholte, 2010, p.1043) Attributions to social differences = Genetics or family history Bullies tend to be low in empathic regard (Rigby, 2003) Bullying is a response to group and peer pressures within School Bullies who are 'popular' are considered to be socially intellectual ) Victimise for social advantage) They will use their skills to gain social dominance- They persuade others to ignore the victim and therefore power and group influence is established (Peeters, Cellessen & Scholte, 2010) Persistent aggressiveness can be attributed to the inability to correctly encode social cues and exhibit an appropriate behavioral response (Peeters, Cellessen & Scholte, 2010) Justify behaviors without feeling guilty (Peeters, Cillessen & Scholte, 2010) Summary There are different types of bullies and each of their intentions requires teachers to intervene in a specific way Less socially intelligent, may be hostile towards others as a result of an inability or unwillingness to choose an appropriate response OTHERS Some bullies are socially intelligent and victimise for personal gain Group Power Motives: - Prejudice or To hurt (Rigby, 2003). Evidence suggests that "bullying is relatively rare in Steiner schools, which provide a highly supportive social environment with respect for individual differences (Rigby, 2003, p.3)a Bullying is a combination of school culture as well as individual actions Bullying often occurs as a result of racism in Australia- Typically the victims are of colonisation Genetic influences may interact with adverse social conditions to which children may be exposed (Rigby, 2003) Home life may interrupt with emotions and enhance aggression - over controlling parents/ lack of affection Bullying & Suicide "...but many students fail to report their own victimisation, because they believe that nothing effective will be done by the school authorities to assist them, or because they fear further attacks by way of reprisal, as a consequence of their reporting the incidents (Tronc, 2010, p.44)" Bullies are often a result of dysfunctional home life. Their bullying behaviors begin in kindergarten and may continue into adulthood (Tronc, 2010) Particularly students moving from primary school to middle school are interested in exploring how to gain power- BE AWARE, bullies start with minor attacks which will eventually progress as a result of gaining confidence of bullying behaviors (Tronc, 2010) The well-being of all students is an essential element of school life for academic development. Therefore, the Australian Government worked with all states towards a standard framework for the safety and well-being of all students. The National Safe Schools Framework A whole-school, proactive approach with a set of guiding principles. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE A concept of justice accompanied by a set of principles, designed to encourage the individual responsibility of every party involved to a point of resolution between the offender and victim, in order to restore and prevent any further offense. Dispute and Conflict Resolution Direct participation by both victim and offender, with the involvement of a mediator/facilitator. Context of event Balanced needs leading to active citizenship DECS Approach to Bullying, Harassment and Violence Requirements for school leaders involving 5 key checkpoints that have to be considered: Have an anti-bullying policy included within their Student Behaviour Management policy or Student Code of Conduct. Website link to the relevant anti-bullying policy or anti-bullying section within an existing policy. Annual review of anti-bullying policy annually and involve parents/caregivers and students in the process. Provide consistent termly updates of school bullying related data and trends which is publicized openly to the school community in general. Include a requirement for annual acknowledgments to the Student code of Conduct / Behaviour Management Policy. 1. The traditional disciplinary approach
2. Strengthening the victim
3. Mediation
4. Restorative Practice
5. The Support Group Method
6. The Method of Shared Concern - Assess bullying in your school
- Engage Parents and Youth
- Create Policies and Rules
- Build a Safe Environment
- Educate Staff and Students Bullying is a serious offense and needs to be approached through a CONSISTENT and UNDERSTANDING approach. Bullying is a layer amongst many that contribute to student safety and wellbeing in the educational environment. COMMUNICATION Think back to where you positioned yourself on the agreement continuum for each of the three statements we offered you.
The taller student was provoked in his actions.
This incident is the responsibility of those with duty of care.
Clearly the smaller students should be punished.
Has your position changed?
Maybe you find these statements inappropriate now?
Maybe you identify more with a particular participant?
Discuss whether your position has changed.
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