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Water Pollution and Singapore River

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Richard Pool

on 26 November 2013

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Transcript of Water Pollution and Singapore River

Richard Pool
Singapore River
Dobbs, S. 2003. The Singapore River: A Social History 1819–2002. Singapore: Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore.

Impact Assessment of Waste Management Options in Singapore. 2013. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56 (3), pp. 244-254. [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

Joshi, Y., Tortajada, C. and Biswas, A. 2012. Cleaning of the Singapore River and Kallang Basin in Singapore: Human and Environmental Dimensions. Ambio, 41 (7), pp. 777-781. [Accessed: 6 Nov 2013].

Joshi, Y., Tortajada, C. and Biswas, A. 2012. Clean up of the Singapore River: Before and After. global-is-asian, 1 (14), [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].
NEA, 2012. Singapore River Clean-up: Against the Odds. Envision, 1 (1), pp. 14-17. [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

Nhb.gov.sg. 2013. Untitled. [online] Available at:
http://www.nhb.gov.sg/NHBPortal/faces/j_4 [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

Tan, Y., Lee, T. and Tan, K. 2009. Clean, green and blue. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Tortajada, C. & Joshi, Y.K. 2013, "Water Demand Management in Singapore: Involving the Public", Water Resources Management, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 2729-2746.

(Unescap.org. 2013) . Singapore: Clean up of the Singapore River and Kallang Basin. [online] Available at: http://www.unescap.org/drpad/vc/conference/bg_sg_14_csr.htm [Accessed: 6 Nov 2013].
Wright, R. 2005. A short history of progress. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers.

EL4: Report
Water Pollution in the Singapore River.

Singapore River Clean-up

Duration: 1977-1986

Cost: $200 Million

Sponsor : Singapore Government
(Agency and Fund et al., 2013)
(Tan, Y., Lee, T. and Tan, K. 2009)
The Singapore River and Kallang Basin catchments cover about one-fifth of Singapore's total land area. Since the 1800's, The Singapore River had been the life line of trading and industrial or busniness activities. With rapid population growth and urbanization over the years, the waterways leading to the Singapore River and Kallang Basin degenerated into an open sewer and rubbish dump as all forms of waste were indiscriminately discharged into them.
(Nhb.gov.sg. 2013)

Pollution in the River

Sources of the Pollution


Tom Spurling
Keys to the success
1. Introduction of an environmental management strategy - i.e. prevention, enforcement, monitoring and education

2. Implementation of land use planning - ensure that developments are properly sited and are compatible with surrounding land uses to achieve a quality environment

3. Putting in place comprehensive environmental infrastructure, such as the sewerage system and refuse collection system

4. Putting in place legislative instrument and enforcement measures as well as monitoring programmes

5. Creating an environmentally conscious population through environmental education

6. Cooperation amongst the various government agencies implementing the various programmes e.g. provision of public housing and industrial workshops, relocation of farms, etc.

After the sources of pollution were removed, work was started to improve the physical appearance of the rivers. The river was dredged to remove tonnes of deposit on the riverbed. Quay steps and rubble along the river waterfront that had deteriorated were repaired. The riverside walkway along the Singapore River were tiled, turfed and filled with bushes to add colour and greenery to the riverside.
(Flags-and-anthems.com, 2013)
(Nhb.gov.sg. 2013)
(NEA, 2012)
(Nhb.gov.sg. 2013)
(NEA, 2012)
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