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Revolutions of 1848
Transcript of Revolutions of 1848
The German Revolution
Allisan Sealy, Phoenix Millen, Steffi Beaverson, and Andres Godinez
French Revolution of 1848
Unsuccessful Revolution of Italy
General population was bourgeoisie-dominated (middle class) .
This Revolution took place in Paris, France.
The working class was treated poorly.
The revolution started February 23, 1848
There were series of rebels, which all ended up failing. :(
Before the German Revolution (Early-Mid 1840s)
Industrial and agricultural radicalization caused sporadic hunger riots due to a severe economic depression in Germany after 1845.
The German Confederation's government was thought of as "tyrannical" and "oppressive".
When the news of the French Revolution (22-24 February 1848) reached the German Confederation, the German proletariat revolted as well.
The Austrian Revolution
Type of Revolution:
Prior to Revolution:
The Age of Metternich lasted from 1815-1848. Metternich wanted preserve the power of the Habsburg government through absolutism.
Metternich was more vigilant on political issues, so economically and socially his government was falling apart.
Concert of Europe-
Revolution in France in 1830
Issues with Russia
Lagos Kossuth- A journalist and lawyer that led the Hungarian Diet. This allowed the people to make a new constitution known as March Laws.
Josip, Graf (count) Jelačić's- Appointed by the Habsburg government. He supports the monoarchy, disapproves of Kossuth, and has a strong hold on the South Slavs to maintain their loyalty to the noble family. His appointment became reason the government goes to war with the Hungarians.
Field Marshal Radetzky- A highly respected man of Austrian that was the chief of staff against the battle with Napoleon. His victories helped the Habsburg government rebuild its confidence.
Rashid, Aatif. "The Impact of the European Revolutions of 1848 The Classroom | Synonym." <i>The Classroom | Synonym</i>. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://classroom.synonym.com/impact-european-revolutions-1848-13144.html>.
Silva, Brett. "1848 Revolutions in Austria." <i>SilvaPages</i>. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://ibatpv.org/projects/germany/austria/1848_austria.htm>.
Wagnleitner, Reinhold. "Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1848-59." <i>Encyclopedia Britannica Online</i>. Encyclopedia Britannica, 17 Mar. 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44183/Austria/33362/Revolution-and-counterrevolution-1848-59>.
Zollner, Erich. "The Age of Metternich, 1815-48." <i>Encyclopedia Britannica Online</i>. Encyclopedia Britannica, 19 Mar. 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44183/Austria/33361/The-Age-of-Metternich-1815-48>.
The first and by far bloodiest uprisings took place in Vienna and Berlin.
Like the French revolutions and many others during the time, the revolution was mostly students fighting against the government, this time the forces of Kaiser Wilhelm IV.
Many of the conflicts were relatively mild; however,
There were widespread fights throughout the German Confederation.
Nationalism and liberalism
Social issues (caused by the Industrial revolution)
It can be divided into three categories: national, social, and democratic-liberal.
It began as a peaceful protest in Vienna, but military troops fired at them. To appease the people, the government gotten rid of Metternich.
The monarchy went between revolution and counter-revolution, in the end it was not successful.
Josip, Graf (count) Jelačić's appointment by the Habsburg government. The Croats and Jelačić battle the Hungarians.
Hungarian government proclaims independence from Habsburg in April 1849. In August 1849 the Hungarian government surrenders to the Austrians.
People from the Kingdom of Sardina revolt due to the spreading of news of revolution. Radetzky defeats them in battle in July 1848.
The news of the revolt of France in 1849 sparked the revolution in the Austrian people, primary Kossuth.
The Neoabsolutist era last from 1849-1860 because the last Austrian emperor attempted to stabilize his government through bureaucracy.
The economy slowly stabilized under Freiherr von Bach, who was the minister of the interior.
A new constitution was made called the October Diploma, it later was revised and name the February Patent.
Nationalist characteristics remained
Ferninard I allowed his nephew to rule, and during that time it was the empire's golden age.
Archduke Franz Ferninard death caused World War I.
Ultimately, the revolution ended in the summer of 1849 with a failure.
However, the failure was not total, as the government was no longer as centralized.
By 1866, Germany was a union of independent states known as the North German Confederation.
March 5, 1848: The Hungarian revolution begins in Austria, immediately followed by revolts in Frankfurt and Vienna
March 13, 1848: Chancellor Klemens von Metternich is forced to resign from the German government,
May 18, 1848: The rebel Frankfurt National Assembely meets to form a new constitution.
Late-Mid 1848: The Conservatives regain power by electing Felix zu Schwarzenberg. This comes during a period of conflict between the rebel Democrats and Liberals.
Fall 1848: Conservative armies crush uprisings in Bohemia and colony-states in Italy before moving on to Vienna.
Late 1848: Vienna, the center of the uprising is captured by the Conservatives. The rebellion is all but over.
The majority of people had no voting rights.
There was widespread poverty and unemployment.
Increasing numbers of social divisions
Controversial government policies such as lowering the wage
The government was controlled by the bourgeois.
There were initially hunger riots, but nothing major.
That changed on March 22, 1848, when the French people revolted.
The Germans realized that a revolution was a good idea, and they revolted too.
There isn't really too much to say here. . .
Chancellor Klemens von Metternich
Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria
Joseph Fickler, journalist and leader of the Baden Democrats
Friedrich Heckler, leader of the Bavarian uprising
Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Germany
Felix zu Schwarzenberg, successor to Friedrich Wilhelm IV
Sources: German Revolution
"German American Corner: The Revolution of 1848." German American Corner: The Revolution of 1848. German Heritage, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
"Germany: The Revolutions of 1848-49." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
"German Revolution of 1848." German Revolution of 1848. Ohio University, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
"The German Revolution of 1848/49." The German Revolution of 1848/49. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
"Wisconsin Mosaic - The Activists - The '48ers - The German Revolution." The German Revolution. Rutgers University, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
The goal in Italy was for change from being under the Austrian Empire's rule and for unification to create one independent state but this goal was not achieved due to the failure of the small kingdoms within Italy unable to work as one and counter revolution of Europe being too strong
Prior to Italy's own revolution the state's within were taking interest of the French Revolution in 1780's
Napoleon Bonaparte takes over parts of Italy in the 1790's
This prompted the beginning of the Risorgimento in which Italy would attempt at unification
By 1815 Napoleon and his army were defeated
The lower class being in poverty and hungry due to low harvests and being laid off
Pope Pius IX freeing political prisoners and encouraging reform
Drive for unification in Piedmont
Austrian Empire's taxes
Reasons for revolution:
, ruler of France 1830-1848.
Alphonse de Lamartine
were the radicals that contributed to the failure of the revolution.
was the leader of the radicals and also had major contributions in the failure of the revolution.
Poor conditions of the working class led to many problems. A banquet campaign, which was set up to promote political opposition on their government, was banned by Paris government. This immediately ignited the revolution.
The working class were treated very poor and unfairly.
The government did not have equality among the classes, and that did not go over well.
The rights and equality of the working class was in need of improvement, and under the rule of Louis Philippe they were not going to get it.
After Louis Philippe was overthrown there were major changes in the government.
The Second Republic was formed.
The government guaranteed the right for people to work and created national workshops. That eventually didn't work out.
The revolution in France set off many other revolutions in Europe, but all the revolutions in 1848 basically failed.
Sparks for the revolution:The outbreak of cholera which many blamed the rulers of Naples for causing 65,000 deaths at the time
Outcries for reform in places such as Parlermo
The declaration for a Republic in Venice
Final sparks for revolution
Ferdinand II- Aided in the revolution of Palermo and regaining control of Sicily
Pope Pius IX-Granted a two-chamber parliament and prevented revolution in Rome
Charles Albert- Wanted liberation in Italy and was made to grant a statute for a representative government
Roman Republic was defeated by the European counterrevolution
Charles Albert's army defeated in Novara against Austria
Failure in the attempt at Democracy
Counter offensive of Austria to regain land
Reasons for failure in revolution:
Failure of unification in the multiple states
Unsuccessful attempts at alliances
King of Naples returning to power
Austrian forces suppressing revolution in Vienna, Prague, and Budapest
Counter revolution of Europe
Sources : Italian Revolution
"Italy: Revolutions of 1848" Encyclopedia Britannica,http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/297474/Italy/27736/The-revolutions-of-1848, April 1 2015
"Revolution of Italy 1848-49" The Free Dictionary, http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Revolution+of+1848%E2%80%9349+in+Italy, April 1, 2015
"Italian Unification" Spark Notes, http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/1871/section3.rhtml, April 1 2015
Background Prior to the Revolution
Sources: French Revolution
Lamartine, Alexandre Ledru-Rollin,
L. A. Garnier-Pagès
were part of the new provisional government that proclaimed Paris a Republic.
Louis Philippe was the ruler of France and he was unwilling to expand the rights of the working class. Normally the lack of equality among the classes wasn't that unusual, until the canceling of the banquet which provoked the working class to break out fighting and one thing led to another and the revolution started.
When Louis Philippe was abdicated many people felt a great sense of relief.
National workshops were formed.
France was proclaimed a republic.
The provisional government was replaced by an executive commission and workers tried to overthrow the elected national assembly. This outbreak is what caused the workshops to fall through.
The workers in the workshops attempted to rebel and that were quickly handled.