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Astronomy

Jin, Bason, Chunghwa, Clarice, Dianne
by

Jin Kim

on 19 May 2011

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Transcript of Astronomy

The Korean Airlines flight 007 is shot down by the Soviets. Astronomy Planets and Moons/ Math Human Exploration Objects in our Solar System/ Art The Universe/ Art Size: 4900 km in diameter
Mass: 3.3 x 10^23 kg
Number of Moons: 0
Distance from Sun: 57.9 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 42% Oxygen, 29% Sodium, 22% Hydrogen
Temperature: -184~465 Celsius
Qualities for Life: None
Discoverer: Babylonians (prehistoric viewers)






. Size: 49500 km in diameter
Mass: 1.03 x 10^26
Number of Moons: 13
Distance from Sun: 4497.1 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 80% Hydrogen, 19% Helium
Temperature: -223 degrees Celsius
Qualities for Life: None
Discoverer: John Couch Adams 1846































. Size: 12100 km in diameter
Mass: 4.87 x 10^24 kg
Number of Moons: 0
Distance from Sun: 108.2 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 96.5% Carbon Dioxide, 3.5% Nitrogen
Temperature: 449 degrees Celsius
Qualities for Life: None
Discoverer: Pythagoras 600BC















. Size: 12800 km in diameter
Mass: 5.97 x 10^24 kg
Number of Moons: 1
Distance from Sun: 149.6 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 78.08% Nitrogen, 20.95% Oxygen, 0.038% Carbon Dioxide
Temperature: 7.2 degrees Celsius
Qualities for Life: Water, Air
Discoverer: Ancient prehistoric humans

























. Size: 6800 km in diameter
Mass: 6.42 x 10^23 kg
Number of Moons: 2
Distance from Sun: 227.9 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 95.32% Carbon Dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon
Temperature: -123~36 degrees Celsius
Qualities for Life: None
Discoverer: Egyptians



















. Size: 51100 km in diameter
Mass: 8.66 x 10^25 kg
Number of Moons: 27
Distance from Sun: 2871 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 83% Hydrogen, 15% Helium
Temperature: -184 degrees Celsius
Qualities for Life: None
Discoverer: Sir William Herschel 1781

























. Size: 125000 km in diameter
Mass: 5.60 x 10^26 kg
Number of Moons: 61
Distance from Sun: 1427 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 96% Hydrogen, 3% Helium
Temperature: -184 degrees Celsius
Qualities for Life: None
Discoverer: Galileo Galilei 1600s





















. Size: 143000 km in diameter
Mass: 1.9 x 10^27 kg
Number of Moons: 63
Distance from Sun: 778.3 million km
Atmosphere Composition: 89.8% Hydrogen, 10.2% Helium
Temperature: -153 degrees Celsius
Qualities for Life: None
Discoverer: Galileo Galilei 1600s






















































.. Mercury Venus Early Astronomers .



Ptolemy .



Copernicus .




Tycho Brahe .




Johannes Kepler .




Galileo Galilei .




Isaac Newton Edwin Hubble Greek astronomer
140 C.E.
"Ptolematic Theory"
Incorrect, but predicted movements of planets well Polish astronomer
1543 (C.E.)
"Copernican Revolution"
His theory was correct Danish astronomer
Late 1500s
used large tools (mural quadrant)
Incorrect theory, BUT
recorded very precise observations German
Brahe's assistant
continued his work once Brahe died
1609- stated planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits
also stated 3 laws of planetary motion Italian
One of first people to use telescope
dsicovered craters on moon, sunspots, phases of venus, etc.
also stated that earth revolves around sun, penalized. British
1687- laws of gravity
"force of gravity depends on mass of objects and distance btwn them"
helped explain past scientists' observations American
1924- proved that other galaxies existed beyond Milky Way
data confirmed that Universe > our galaxy Spacecraft Black Holes First, what is a Black Hole?? A black hole is a massive region in space where the force of gravity is so strong that light or any matter can not escape it To put into Conception.... Try to imagine something as large as 10X the size our our Sun This would be our solar system in comparison to that "Something" To be Squeezed into an area perhaps only as large as NYC . The result of this is a Black Hole with a gravitational field that is so powerful and intense, It bends the path of light.












. Supernova Now, How do Black Holes Form? Asteroid Belt - Black Holes can be created through normal stellar evolution

- if the star is massive enough, when it runs out of fuel (hydrogen, helium) it explodes in what we call a supernova

- Massive means...20-30 TIMES AS LARGE AS THE SUN

- Simply put, a black hole is formed once a massive star fails to continue creating nuclear reactions that keep the star "puffy", and the star collapses on its own massive gravity Main Points to consider... How do astronomers spot a black hole when It traps light and is essentially invisible? 1957- "Sputnik,"Soviet Union launches first satellite into space; Birth of the Space Age Comet Oort Cloud Now you might be wondering...

If the Big Bang was everything in the universe (13.7 BILLION light years) compressed to a golf ball. Why didnt it just become a SUPER MASSIVE black hole and collapse under its own gravity? Astronomers are able to spot black holes by studying the environment that it is in.










. Asteroids are a class of small solar system bodies in orbit around the sun. Asteroid belt is a region located between Mars and Jupiter, formed of billions of asteroids. mostly rocks and metals. Spherical cloud formed of many comets. Mixture of ice and dust that did not form into a planet. Fortunately, the environment for black holes are usually very messy (filled with stars, dust and gas) therefore it is much easier to see the effects of the black hole on its environment Massive burning ball, formed by gravity holding segments together. The Big Bang Explosion of a star. Can emit light that is stronger or similar to the sun. Before everything, we had a singularity (similar to that of the center of
a black hole) called the Big Bang




















. after less than a trillionth of a second, the universe goes through a process known as inflation, or accelerated growth. A simple timeline of the Big Bang 10^-43 sec
cosmos goes through extreme expansion (inflation)
from the size of a atom to a grape fruit








. 10^-32 sec
- 10^27 C
a hot soup of electron and other particles form





. 10^-6 sec
- 10^13 C
Universe enters a cooling state
Protons and neutrons start to clump together








. ONE SECOND PASSES 3 min
-10^8 C
still too hot to form any atoms
is now a superhot fog









. 300,000 years
- 10,000 C
Electrons and other particles now form atoms
Mostly Hydrogen and Helium
Light finally shines in the galaxy










.. 1 Billion Years
- -200 C
Gravity causes particles to condense and form giant clouds, will later become the first galaxies
The smaller clumps of gas form the first stars








. 13.7 billion years
- -270 C
The first stars die and spew out heavy matter
later becomes the first planets and other stars.






.
. Credit to Dr. Dan Hooper Meteorite A natural object originating from outer space that survive the impact of Earth's surface. Technology Sputnik 1 First artificial satellite to be put into Earth's orbit. Telescopes Refractor Telescope that used lenses to gather light. The first telescope introduced in 1608. Simply, layers of lense. Satellites Hubble Space Telescope Created in 1990, one of the largest and well known research and astronomy tool. Earth Mars Reflector The Reason why the Big Bang did not become a black hole is....

because it had WAY too much energy for gravity to overcome the pressure.

- black holes only form when mass is
(1) big enough
(2) no longer has, enough energy for the pressure to overcome gravity. Jupiter Saturn Uranus Telescope that use mirrors to gather light. Neptune THE SUN Drawn by Dianne Chung if the universe was once the size of a marble, how is it infinite? Unless it has something to do with where you move off the left side of the screen and reappear on the right side, making spacetime like a sphere? There are still many mysteries that shroud the Big Bang Theory such as... However there is much more evidence that proves that the Big Bang did, infact occur such as the fact that the universe is continuously expanding. Moon Size: 3474 km in diameter
Mass: 7.35 x 10^22 kg
Composition: Argon, Helium, Sodium, Potassium, Hydrogen
Orbit: Earth 1 month
Quality For Life: None










. .









Sputnik, the first spacecraft ever invented. .












Saturn V, a three- stage rocket is launching in this photo. .









Above is Neil Armstrong, on the moon. .






These are pictures of nebulas, galaxies, and other cosmic objects that the Hubble Space Telescope has taken. Early Astronauts Relationship between the Sun, Earth, Moon What does it take to be an astronaut? By Jin Kim, Bason Park, Dianne Chung, Chunghwa Suh, and Clarice Lee 8B Constellations and Stars/ Literature Human Exploration/ History A Big History Timeline Human Exploration Timeline Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram This graph shows the life cycle of stars similar to that of a medical record for humans does not actually give the location of the star but instead their absolute magnitude or luminosity and their temperatures. 1 Earth orbit around the Sun = 365.26 days 1 Moon orbit around the Earth = 1 month ZODIAC CONSTELLATIONS Interesting News: Why is Pluto not a Planet? : a group of stars that forms
a picture/pattern in the sky : a huge, massive ball of
plasma that is held together
by gravity 1.20~2.18 Aquarius (water bearer)
- handsome Trojan prince
- kidnapped and carried off to heaven by
an eagle sent from Zeus to become the
cup - bearer of the gods 2.19~3.20 Pisces (the fish)
- Aphrodite and her son Eros disguised
themselves as a fish when the monster,
Typhon, attacked Olympus 3.21~4.20 Aries (the ram)
- golden ram sent by the cloud
nymph Nephele to rescue her children,
Phrixus and Helle 4.21~5.21 Taurus (the bull)
- Zeus disguised himself as a bull to
tempt the Phoenician princess, Europa
to climb on his back and carried her to the
island of Crete 5.22~6.21 Gemini (the twins)
- twin sons of Zeus,
Castor and Polydeuces 6.22~7.22 Cancer (the crab)
- crab of Lemaean Swamp
- assisted Hydra iin battle with
Hercules 7.23~8.22 Leo (the lion)
- lion whose hide was impervious
to weapons
- controlled countryside of Nemea 8.23~9.22 Virgio (the virgin)
- the maiden goddess of justice 9.23~10.22 Libra (the scales)
- scales of Astraea, the goddess of justice 11.23~12.21 Sagittarius (the archer)
- wise centaur, Chiron
- surrendered immortality after being
poisoned by Hercules' arrow 12.22~1.19 Capricorn (the goat horn)
- goatish-looking sea god
- assisted Zeus in the War of the Titans 10.23~11.22 Scorpio (the scorpion)
- scorpion sent to kill Orion by Gaea,
the earth goddess Summary: Pluto is not a planet since it does not meet the third requirment of being a planet in the solar system. Graph of Density (Pluto Included) Graph of Mass (Pluto Included) One Day on a Planet (Pluto Included) Gravity Graph (Pluto Included) Velocity in Orbits Graph (Pluto Included) http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/ .











Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Donald K. Slayton, John H. Glenn, Jr., and M. Scott Carpenter, Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Virgil I. Grissom and L. Gordon Cooper Average Temperatures (Including Pluto) 1.3 Million times the volume of Earth
Gives off heat, light, energy
Center of the Solar System
Main Sequence Star
































. Claudius Ptolemy 147AD
Almagest: stated that the Earth is the center of the universe.
Althoguh proven wrong, he introduced astronomy The Andromeda Galaxy: our closet Neighbor approximately 2.5 million light-years from Earth For More Information: BIOGRAPHY (Bason) It is the closest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way, but not the closest galaxy overall. Andromeda is the largest galaxy of the Local Group, which consists of the Andromeda Galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy, the Triangulum Galaxy, and including about 30 other smaller galaxies Has an apparent magnitude of 3.4 and therefore can be spotted on a clear night sky from earth even with some light pollution. Is also considered to be one of the brightest messier objects in our galaxy. A region of space along the ecliptic outside the orbit of Neptune. Mostly formed of icy chunks of various substances. There are certain specific requirements an astronaut must fulfill. 1959~1963- NASA launches the Mercury Capsule, first men in space 1967- NASA launches the Saturn V, a three- stage rocket. 1969- United States launches the Apollo 11, which landed on the moon, containing Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. 1983- NASA releases Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-1) 1990- the Hubble Space Telescope is launched; expanded knowledge about the cosmos Modern Astronauts Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 ~ 1543
Mathmetician/Astronomer
Copernican theory stated that the Sun was in the center of the Earth
"Copernican Revolution" Galileo Galilei 1564 ~1642
Inventor/ Scientist/ Astronomer
Introduced the use of telescopes
found evidence that the Copernican theory was correct
arrested Dark Matter This is a footage of the latest astronauts returning. How Stars Were Made, written by: Clarice Lee
A long time ago, Aphrodite, the space
god had a daughter named Lyra. When Lyra cried,
her tears would turn into diamonds and twinkle in
space. Aphrodite was the only family member she had
because her mother passed away when she was born.
One day, a black hole came and destroyed her home.
While trying to save Lyra, Aphrodite got sucked in to the
black hole, and it carried him far far away. From then, Lyra
cried endlessly, and searched everywhere for him. Her tears
scattered all over space, shining brightly, and this is why
there are so many stars in space. Messier Catalogue a list of non-comet objects in space
created by French astronomer Charles Messier
so people won't confuse nebulous objects as comets Stellar Parallax used to find the actual distance from distant stars to nearer stars
shows effect of parallax in distant stars
- parallax: the effect where the position of a star differs when it is seen from different areas
distant stars seem to stay in the same place Nebula a large cloud of gas and dust in space
- absorve light and hide stars/ glow/ reflect starlight
new stars form
mostly found in spiral galaxies Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Danish astronomer(TIE koh BRAW uh)
stated: sun and moon revolved around Earth and other planets revolve the sun
recorded precise observations
Apprentice, Johannes Kepler took over his work after his death ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: The 23.5 degree tilt and the rotation causes day and night to occur, as well as seasons. It all depends of how much of the earth is getting sunlight. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: The moons is the cause of tides in the ocean Edwin Hubble (1889~1953)
proved that the universe was expand
found other galaxies outside our own
- noticed red shifts
important astronomer that revolutionized modern astronomy Isaac Newton (1643~1727)
physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher,
alchemist, theologiam
created laws of motion and theory of gravitation size: More than 400 to 900km
discoverer: most likely Heinrichels or William Herschel
Shape: formed of billions of smaller particles, looks like a loop size:750m to 20km in diameter
shape:round and has a tail that changes its direction when the direction changes Recession starts in America, with about 5.2 million people left unemployed. 1993- Crew from "Endeavor" (rocket) fixes Hubble Telescope when it breaks The "Family and Medical Leave" bill is passed by Congress. 2007- The Pheonix Mars Lander is launched, taking accurate pictures of Mars. 1959- Alaska is added to the US as the 49th state. Richard Nixon is elected the president of the United States. Amana releases the first house microwave. Ban Ki- Moon (South Korean) replaces Kofi Annan as the new United Nations Secretary- General. Germany is no longer divided; East and West Germany reunite. Moon: a natural satellite/object that orbits around a planet planets have different amounts of moons size: Most are very small, like a size of rice.
shape: They are generally in a spherical shape.
mass: An average mass of a meteor is 3.0-3.6×1021 kg, about 4% of the moon's mass
orbit: it is found between Mars and Jupiter.
sightings: The meteors constantly move and many enters the Earth's atmosphere. But the chemical structures of the atmosphere reacts with the meteor, causing it to melt. At night, you can actually see them. Shooting stars are actually meteors that are burning by the atmosphere (Before they even come near Earth, it is gone)
discoverers: There were many craters on Earth and many scientists were curious about them and what caused the craters. Further studies showed that big meteors entered Earth, not fully breaking down in the atmosphere. So there isn't exactly a person who discovered the meteors. size: it is an estimate but it is about one light-year away from the sun
shape: There are spherical shape and disk-shaped oort clouds.
mass: unknown
orbit: The nearest star to the Sun
sightings: It is mostly made out of ice and looks like
discoverers: Ernst Opik made a hypothesis that talks similar to the oort cloud and how comets are formed near the sun Shape: conatains many small remnants of floating planets
mass: relatively low, 30 Earth masses
size:100AU
discovery:1992 Stephen Hawking (January 8, 1942) For More Information on Saturn (RESEARCH QUESTION) Bason Studied cosmology at Cambridge Unv.
Was born in Oxford England
His dream is to unify quantum mechanics with Einstein's general theory of relativity, forming a single theory to explain the origin (and end) of the universe.
suffered from ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) since he was a young man and is confined to a wheelchair. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Big Bang 14 billion years ago
started the beginning of time
small point exploded into a big expansion Starts/Galaxies 13.9 billion years ago
hydrogen/helium form
starts are born
galaxies are made was a German astronomy and natural philosopher
formulated the three laws of planetary motion, which are now known as Keplers's Laws.
studied the Copernican theory at the University of Tubingen More Chemicals Form 13.9 billion years ago
stars die and form new elements
heavier elements One must also consider that this is a theory, not a hypothesis. This means that it has overcome possible contradictions and the evidence supports it. Planets Form 5 billion years
our solar system forms Life on Earth 4.2 billion years ago
Photosynthesis, first cells
Eukaryotes First Multicellular Organisms 1 billion~0.5 billion years ago
Cambrian Explosion
First Brains
Leave life on Sea Dinosaurs/Mammals Form 0.5~0.1 billion years ago Mass Extinction 1 million years ago Global Connection 500 years ago
Human Exploration Starts To find out more about black holes click the following link.... https://docs.google.com/document/d/1AeZFPgzzRhk9TM5apADds7LpuqFgF3PiGQT73P6W33E/edit?hl=en Chunghwa Suh
Astronomer Essay
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dglheg6z2nUllthsg5YGOjFuXo6u6KMu1tIEmaSdYdY/edit?hl=en&pli=1#
Topic Essay
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1n-um05oHGDedMfjAid_dTNzPc0k_axpfuPUPNkkXQ38/edit?hl=en# https://docs.google.com/document/d/1A0iLH-NGa4q-1HhicH-EdO3abqpFipU-aIdeQGberXg/edit?hl=en YouTube - Back with a Bang: ISS Crew Spaced out after Months in Orbit ‏. YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. 26 Nov. 2010. Web. 18 May 2011. . https://docs.google.com/document/d/1463fbf9Q94iRBkpvt8Ha4CjMl6r0SFy5sSJl8HIF1Rs/edit?hl=en "Google Images." Google. Web. 18 May 2011. . "Google Images." Google. Web. 18 May 2011. . "Explained: Why Pluto Is Not A Planet." The Universe Made Simple. Web. 18 May 2011. "Google Images." Google. Web. 18 May 2011. . Star Kuiper Belt Information: Winston, Holt Rineheart, and Katy Z. Allen. "Chapter 14, Studying Space, Section Teo, Telescopes." HOLT SCIENCE& TECHNOLOGY Integrated Science Level BLUE. Holt McDougle, 2008. 433. Print. Source used for descriptions:
Katy Z. Allen, Linda Ruth Berd, Andrew Champagne, Leila Dumas, Jennie Dushek, Robert H. Fronk, Mary Kay Hemenway, Kathleen Kaska, Karen J. Mech, Lee Summerlin, Mark F. Taylor. Integrated Science. Austin, Texas: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print. The graphs below are all from: To find out more on Stephen Hawking Follow this link... https://docs.google.com/document/d/1F-6m6Y2OG5uOpYV4SPIzABU0koylOwjnmohZF4O9q-k/edit?hl=en https://docs.google.com/document/d/1oiE3faya4ADC7mOZqaGzY-eoKJ0HR8f60JnqUI24AGY/edit?hl=en&authkey=CPiL0eAP https://docs.google.com/document/d/1n9kLYl-lomLOkSjQMmRS5u1wNZEkvWlrS6UM_3fW65Y/edit?hl=en&authkey=CJXm8L0L For more information: size: can be as small as a golf ball but weigh as a truck and can be bigger than trucks.
discoverer: amateur astronomers that outnumbered the professionals. However, the first recorded supernova was done by Chinese astronomers.
shape: explosion. Many particles float but make a ball shape due to gravity pulling in and balancing at the sme time. discovered:1992
orbit:100AU
mass: 25th and 10th mass of Earth
size: 30 to 35AU mass: 100 to150 times the mass of sun
orbit or speed: greater than 100km per second. The Life Cycle of a Star Galaxies https://docs.google.com/document/d/1_NJWLrmWel5immNvrh_ZFnVFsd7dg8Of4Lhywyy6D7Y/edit?hl=en COMBINED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALL INFORMATION SOURCE: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1beQRg-neuXwX2ZDIdUopDoQB0qjcF3zxExqGFUVgMXQ/edit?hl=en# Go into "Overall History" Early Civilizations
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