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RM Lecture VI: Nonreactive Measures

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Jean-Michel Sotiron

on 2 October 2017

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Transcript of RM Lecture VI: Nonreactive Measures

Research Methods Lecture VI
Nonreactive Measures
Today's Lecture
Unobtrusive Observation

My friend Cassianne the epidemiologist
Content Analysis
Secondary Data Analysis
Your turn!
Manufacturing Consent
Content Analysis: An example
Physical Evidence Analysis
Content Analysis
Four (4) Broad Categories
-OBSERVATION, unobtrusive non-participant fieldwork
Bert Young Memorial Scholarship
-Begging to give you money
Measuring Human Behaviour
-Limits of reactive research
Roll call
Bert Young Memorial Scholarship
Nonreactive measures
Report #2: Generations
Four (4) Types
Four (4) Strengths
1. Validity
Two (2) Weaknesses
Inappropriate for measuring thoughts, beliefs, opinions and motivations.
Avoids Leading Questions
Cannot test for causality (cause – effect), only suggestive.
2. Ethics
3. Interviewer effect and bias reduction
4. Very creative and ingenious techniques
• Magazine covers• Musical Lyrics• News Media• Portrayal of minorities in film
Why Use Content Analysis?
Useful when there is a large quantity of text to cover with sampling and a coding sheet.
• Direction
What Do You Measure?
Coding, Validity, and Reliability
• Manifest Coding: High reliability, Low validity
What if there's too much content?
• Define the population
Limitations of Content Analysis
Symbols & Meanings
Secondary Data Analysis
My own research on Hindu Nationalism
Yes, Minister
-Have you ever felt observed?
-PHYSICAL TRACES, erosion and accretion
-SECONDARY ANALYSIS, archival/existing data/
document analysis
• Toilet graffiti
• Looking in people’s garbage (empty
bottles of alcohol)
• Garage sales
• Cemeteries (patterns of birth and
• Limitations
• Privacy issues
• Guesswork problem: Must rule out
alternative hypotheses
Useful when the subject cannot ethically or logistically be studied directly.
Useful for ascertaining other levels or dimensions of meaning in a text or object
• Frequency
• Intensity
• Space
• Prominence
• Quantitative:
Must be replicable!
• Latent Coding: Low reliability, High validity
• Use both!
• Intercoder reliability:
Several people coding
Measured 0 to 1.
• Create a sampling frame
• Use a random selection process
Unknown effect
Need to conduct other research, such as experiments
-What have you got to lose?
-Good practice to rule the world
Part of a process
Assignment: Refugees in the news
Go to front page of three news sources
Think of the daily reality.
Think of Maslow.
Teams of 2-3.
Evaluate the first refugee article you find
Rest of class to do the work.
Full transcript