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Soil Test and Excavation

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Samuel Lacuna

on 10 May 2016

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Transcript of Soil Test and Excavation

What is Soil?
Boring and Penetration Test
Percussion Test, Vane Shear Test, Layout & Skating and Standard Load Test
Excavation
Soil Test & Excavation
Group 1

Samuel Reginald T. Lacuna
Marco Paul Hernandez
Justin Basye
Anna Dominique Rey

Soil
is the main resource when comes to infrastructure, which serves as a base. Testing the sand is important for the safety and stability of construction projects.
Soil Verification
Compaction Test
Sand Probing Test
Soil Testing Services
Soil Analysis
Soil test for construction taken by the engineers may need to make further soil tests to make sure of the subsurface of soil conditions
Soil Horizons
Horizon O
“O” stands for organic
Horizon A
This is also known as the top soil
Horizon E
“E” for Eluviations
Horizon B
known as the
Subsoil
Horizon C
the parent rock or the original rock
Horizon R
the bedrock or bottommost layer of the soil layers
Soil: According to Size
Soil can be classified into three group bases on their sizes. It can either be:
Sand – measuring from 0.05 millimeter to 2.00 millimeters.
Silt – measuring from 0.002 millimeter to 0.05 millimeter.
Clay – measuring less than 0.002 millimeter.
Soil Characteristics
Color
Texture
Aggregation
Porosity
Ion content
pH
Soil: Investigation
Purpose:
- Determine the SUITABILITY OF THE SITE for the proposed project.

- Determine an ADEQUATE AND ECONOMIC FOUNDATION DESIGN.

- Determine the DIFFICULTIES WHICH MAY ARISE during the construction process and period.

- Determine the OCCURRENCE AND/OR CAUSE OF ALL CHANGES IN SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
Soil Samples
Disturbed Soil Samples
Undisturbed Soil Samples
Soil Investigation Types
Trial Pitting
Cable Percussive Borehole
Rotary Drilled Boreholes
Foundation
is vital to the integrity of very structure being the interface with the soil or the rock below. Soil has a variety of properties which can vary from place to place.

Site Investigation
Foundation design is primarily based on the result of site investigations.

Site investigation refers to the process of determining the surface and sub-surface conditions of the soil.

Site Investigation: FACTORS AFFECTING CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY

The thickness of vegetation, density and height of trees.
Disposal of the removed surface materials particularly in the urban area.
Surface water and drainage system.
Availability of water supply and electric power.
Proximity of major transportation route.
Environmental regulations and zoning ordinances of various government agencies.

Boring Test
Boring test
provides a visual identification of the soil strata underlying the area by literally penetrating into the earth. Sub-surface materials are identified in place or from samples that were taken at a known depth and brought to the surface for examination.

Auger Boring

the simplest device for boring a hoe in the ground. There are two types of hand auger commonly used for soil identifications, they are:
The Helical Auger
The Iwan or Post Hole Auger

Helical Auger
Post Hole Auger
Wash Boring
Wash boring
method is driving a piece of metal tube with 5 to 10 centimeters diameter from 1.50 to 3.00 meters depth. The tube casing is cleared out by a chopping bit attached to the lower portion of the wash pipe inserted inside the tube casing. Water is forced down through the wash pipe by means of a high velocity pump to rinse and wash the pipe.

Hallow Stem Auger Boring
A truck driving rigs turn the auger into the soil rapidly to a depth of more than 60 meters using continuous flights of auger with hollow stern where sampling tools are operated. Augers with 6 to 8cm. diameter are commonly used.

HOLLOW STEM AUGER BORING

ROTARY DRILLING

Rotary drilling
is the most rapid method in penetrating highly resistant materials such as rocks, clay or even sand. The rotary boring diameter ranges from 5 to 20 centimetres.

Percussion Test
A percussion drilling is sometimes called CABLE TOOL drilling used when wash boring or auger boring could not penetrate exceptionally hard strata of soil or rocks.
Penetrometer
• A device used to investigate and measure the consistency of cohesive deposit or relative density of cohesion less strata without the necessity of drilling and getting samples
 Static Penetration Test – the penetrometer is push steady into the soil and preferred for cohesive soil
 Dynamic Penetration Test – the penetrometer is driven into the soil and is good for very hard deposits.

Vane Shear Test
Vane shear
test is commonly used to measure the shear strength and the sensitivity of clay.
Layout and Skating
• Is the process of establishing the point of the building outlines or perimeter on the ground.
• Demolition, clearing, staking, batter board and establishing the exact location of the building post and walls.
• Process of transferring the measurement of building foundation plan.

Standard Load Testing
• The building code on load test
“The bearing capacity of the soil is not definitely known, it may require load tests or other proof as to the permissible safe bearing capacity. To determine the safe bearing capacity of the soil, it may be tested by loading an area not less than 18sq.m to not less than twice the maximum bearing capacity desired for use. Such load shall be sustained by the soil.

Steps in Standard Load Testing
1. Dug to the depth of Soil to be tested usually the proposed footing level.
2. The pit width be atleast 5x the plate width
3. The square plate with a general dimension of .30m x 0.60m is set on a levelled bottom of the pit
4. Place the load on top of the plate by a platform loaded with concrete blocks, cement or jacking with a calibrated hydraulic jack against a beam properly anchored down the earth
SLIDE # 8
5. Measure the settlement by the level instrument or by a micrometer dial gauge mounted on a support independent of the loading system
6. Apply the load to an increment of about one tenth the estimated failure load or one fifth the proposed design load until complete bearing capacity failure or twice the design load is reached
7. Each increment is mainted constant which settlement readings are made at regular but increasing interval such as 1,2,5,10,20,40 and 80 minutes
8. The load test result express only the short term loading of the model and not necessarily the long term loading of a full sized building. Extrapolation is necessary in order to able use the data for design

STANDARD LOAD TESTING PLATFORM
• Result found in the load test require careful interpretation for may in some instances be misleading.

• In determining the dimension required for a foundation, it is the designer’s responsibility and duty to ascertain first the allowable bearing.
Excavation is the process of moving earth, rock or other materials with tools, equipment or explosives. It includes earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunneling and underground. 

How does the process work?
Setting out corner benchmarks
Surveying grounds and top levels
Excavation to the approved depth
Dressing the loose soil
Making up to cut off level
The construction of dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches
Making boundaries of the building
The construction of protection bunds and drains
Where is excavation construction used?
Excavation construction
is used during the construction process of almost every structure we encounter throughout our lives. 

Who performs excavation?
 Selecting a heavy industrial contractor who values safety, is known for quality work and has experience in excavation construction will yield the best results for your large excavation project.
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