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CAPITAL AND INDUSTRY
Transcript of CAPITAL AND INDUSTRY
Melissa Wade Brief History The Environment LABOUR SOCIAL CLASS HOUSING POPULATION GROWTH Smog filled air was as a result of chimneys, factory smoke and even bridges. Londonium Timeline – 1850- 1950 Impacts of Industrial Revolution on: The Environment Housing Labour Social Class Population Growth "Rise of the factories" Pollution During the 1800’s pollution was not a controlled factor in London. The introduction of the steam engine brought forth more instability. ` London’s name came from Londinius, a Celtic word which means the “place of the bold one” During the 19th century, London became the first "world city" The steam engine was powered by the use of coal which emitted smog: The streets were Laden and lined with smoke which appeared like a blanket Diseases stemmed from pollution. Water pollution due to tanners dumping chemicals waste and remnants of animals into River Thames Densely populated city centers;
expansion took place on the city’s peripherals Congestion
Long commutes from residences from countryside to workplace in city
Isolation and despair In 1880 Employment in Port of London increased based on the influx of 8 million tons of goods; ten times that in 1800. People from the countrysides were highly attracted to the increase in factory jobs. Factories in this era became magnets; attracting more people than ever, into the city for work. Factories gave opportunities for a better lifestyle to those that were not able to support their families. The wealthy lived in both suburb and city areas London attracted the dispossessed and ambitious from British Isles, poor and politically oppressed from south and east Europe, lured immigrants from British possession throughout the world particularly India and China. Buckingham palace became a royal residence in 1837, built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1705 and enlarged in the 19th century by architect’s John Nash and Edward Blore. Population increased as a direct result of the increase in availability of factory jobs. Urban dwellers moved into London Populated by foreign merchants; Germans from
Hans cities, Florentines and Lombards from the Mediterranean. Diseases due to over population:
Typhoid 1809: 1 million people
1841: 1.9 million
1850: 2.35 million
1861: 3.8 million
1890: 4 million
1901: 4.14 million people
Today: 6 million city inhabitants TRANSPORTATION
INFRASTRUCTURE 1829 – Omnibuses revolutionized transportation
1830 – Railroads began being built
1863 – Rebuilding of bridges: Battersea, Westminister, London, Blackfriars
1865 – Underground started (subway)
1880 – Horse drawn trams were used "FUN" FACTS Additionally in 1820 London underwent an Urban transformation – Ornamentation of buildings began to be a necessity.Villa’s erected – e.g. Cumberland terrace 1700+ London was Europe’s and the worlds greatest port and commercial center… until the 20th century London possessed a world class banking system that furthered the development of Capitalism; which the factory system was dependent on Britain between 1750 and 1800 produced over 70% of urban growth in Europe, of which London was a substantial contributor. Land Ownership Break-downCrown Lands – Owned by the Queen
Aristocracy/Nobility Lands – Owned by Dukes and Duchesses, Princes and Princesses
Rental Land – Paid to Nobility
Common Lands – No rental fee existed London was capital of Great Britain, British Empire and British Commonwealth of nations London was the greatest port and commercial centre until the 20th century THEN & NOW Cumberland Terrace - 1821 Buckingham Palace - 1897 Ludgate Circus - 1897 The Monument - 1897 THANK YOU! London & Industrialization The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. The mechanization of the textile industry spearheaded a series of changes, which had tremendous impact on urbanization in 19th century London. Initially the location was determined by the availability of wind or water power. The manipulation of water in order to drive water mills became very important, rivers were diverted; reservoirs were built in the hills to supply mills. Hence the location of London was along the River Thames. This timeline focuses on the after effects of the Industrial Revolution In London 1850-1950. Industries in London:
Glass Factories The Great London Smog of December 1952, which killed approximately 4,000 people.Following the Great London Smog legislation was introduced and the first Clean Air Act was passed in 1956, which moved power stations and heavy industry to more rural sites. SlUMS Perhaps the most damning of all the impacts of the industrial revolution was the exponential growth of slums – densely populated and sub-standard living conditions in all the industrial towns