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Rainforest 2

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Jake Hutto

on 16 April 2010

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Transcript of Rainforest 2

The Rainforest Locations Abiotic Factors The rainforest is a key abiotic factor. The soil has little nutrients to give and is mostly acidic so the trees provide most of the nutrients for other plants which is why they are so big.

The elevation is a key abiotic factor. The trees are so tall that certain plants of the rainforest get less sunlight and have different organisms living there. The top layer or canopy has different species living there than at the bottom. Different animals and plant life live at different elevations in the rainforest.

Rainforests are classified by areas of land the have an annual rainfall of 68-78 inches. Along with heavy rainfall the land is in a tropical climate, with an average tempature of 70* F

Biotic Factors Animals The animals of the rainforests role is to carry pollen and seeds around because the wind, the usual carrier of pollen is blocked by the high trees.

Mammals: The most common mammal in the tropical rainforest is the bat. There's many kinds of species. They hang from the trees instead of from caves. The vampire lives in the tropical rainforest and sucks blood from animals to get food. The Indian Flying Fox bat's wingspan spreads up to 5 feet across.

Birds: There's 500 bird species in the tropical rainforests. Some fruit eating birds are Parrots, Macaws, lorikeets, hornbills, and toucans. There's 33 different species of toucans!

Insects: There's over 200 species of insects living in one tree, some not even discovered by scientists yet. There's millions of beautiful butterflies in the rainforest. A postman butterfly is above. It's bright colors attract other animals. There are also tarantulas in the tropical rainforest. They're basically not considered insects, because they're spiders. Tarantulas kill their prey by biting it and injecting strong poison into their bloodstream. Caterpillars and centipedes crawl all over the rainforest, eating the leaves of trees for food.

Primates: Apes and monkeys are the most common primates in the Tropical Rainforest . The howler monkey and the spider monkey both live in the tropical rainforests of Central america. They eat fruit and leaves. Three sorts of apes are gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Gorillas only live in Africa. They're found on the ground of the tropical rainforests. They're favorite food to eat is bamboo. Chimpanzees are also found on the rainforest floor eating basically anything such as fruit, insects, and small animals. Orangutans live on Asian islands such as Sumatra and Borneo. They also eat fruit.

Plants Did you know that in a 10 kilometer area has about 1,500 flowering plants and 750 tree species?

System of Layers:

Top Layer- The top layer is made up of 75 foot trees. Some of them like grow "fins" like the above.They are call buttresses. The point of these fins is to keep it's balance when strong winds from monsoons reach the rainforest. They may also grow a spiky like texture on their bark to keep plant eating insects and animals away.

Canopy Trees- The canopy trees are about 20 to 30 feet tall. They may also grow fins or the spiky texture as i said top layer trees grow. They may also grow roots from the branches into the ground to stabilize it.

Forest Floor- The forest floor is the actual ground of the tropical rainforest. It barley gets any sunlight because the top layer and the canopy blocks it out. Because of this it doesn't have as many plants and animals as the canopy and top layer does.

Other Plants:

Rafflesia arnoldi- The Rafflesia Arnoldi has the largest flower in the world on it. The flower is 1 meter across.It smells like rotting meat. This odor attracts flies, which are necessary for pollination.

Here are a few things we use that is originally from the rainforest : pineapple, banana, grapefruit, avocado, coconut, chocolate, vanilla, nutmeg, cinnamon, black pepper, ginger, paprika, chicle (gum), bamboo, and balsa wood.

Simple Food Chain Tropical rainforests are the species-richest biomes in the world and very complex ecosystems. There are therefore hundreds, maybe thousands of different food chains that together form a huge food web. Here are a few examples on food chains in tropical rainforests of Australia.

Levels in a Tropical Rainforest Food Chain:

The simplest way to think about it is that there are four levels in the tropical rainforest food chain (there are actually often more):

1. Plants, flowers, fruits, leaves, plankton, insects, larvae, spiders

2. Plant, insect and plankton eaters: frogs, fish, bandicoots, possums, echidnas, most birds, wallabies and kangaroos

3. Small animal eaters: snakes, quolls, dunnarts, platypus, kookaburras, owls, birds of prey

4. Larger animal eaters: pythons, crocodiles, dingoes, feral cats, feral dogs

This is actually more complicated because most of animals eat different things, like platypus eats small fish but also plankton, so in a different food chain it could be on a different level. But let's keep the things simple so far.

Facts! An area of a rainforest the size of a football field is being destroyed each second.

Giant bamboo plants can grow up to 9 inches a day.
The trees of a tropical rainforest are so densely packed that rain falling on the canopy can take as long as 10 minutes to reach the ground.

In the moist rainforests of South America, sloths move so slowly that algae are able to grow in their fur.

Some rainforest monkeys are omnivores, eating both animals and plants.
More than 2,000 different species of butterflies are found in the rainforests of South America.

The forests of Central Africa are home to more than 8,000 different species of plants.
Flying animals of Asian rainforests include frogs, squirrels and snakes.

80% of the flowers in the Australian rainforests are not found anywhere else in the world.

Bats are essential for the pollination of many tropical foodstuffs such as bananas and mangoes.

1 out of 4 ingredients in our medicine is from rainforest plants.

Human Impact Because of its plethora of species, humans have used rainforests for hundreds of years. Native peoples have used these plants and animals for food, building materials, and medicine. Today, rainforest plants are used to treat many different ailments such as fevers, infections, and burns.

The most significant human impact on rainforests though is deforestation. In temperate rainforests, the trees are often cut down for building materials. In these forests in Oregon for instance, 96 percent of the forests have been logged while half of those in Canada’s British Columbia have been subjected to the same.

Tropical rainforests are also subject to deforestation but in these areas it is mainly to change the land into agricultural uses in combination with logging. Slash and burn agriculture and other clear cutting are common in many tropical rainforest areas.

As a result of human activities in rainforests, many areas have lost a significant portion of their forests and hundreds of plant and animal species are being driven to extinction. Brazil for instance has declared deforestation a national emergency. Because of species losses and the impacts climate change is having on the rainforests, countries all over the world are now setting up plans to protect the rainforest and putting this biome at the forefront of public knowledge.
Food Chain
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