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Using Mayer's 12 Principles of Multimedia Learning
Transcript of Using Mayer's 12 Principles of Multimedia Learning
Using Images in Instruction
Images are an important tool in the explanation of almost any topic. Therefore, it is important that when we are choosing images to use, we consider the following principles from Mayer (2009):
students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone.
: Students learn better from a multimedia lesson when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts.
Spatial Contiguity Principle
: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen.
Temporal Contiguity Principle:
Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively.
Simulations, videos and games are fun ways to help your students interact with the material you are learning. However, we need to be sure that we are providing simulations and games that are truly helping our students to master material, not merely using technology for the sake of saying we are using technology. Mayer (2009) again provides us with some principles to guide our selections.
students learn better when extraneous words, pictures and sounds are excluded rather than included.
Students learn better when cues that highlight the organization of the essential material are added.
Students learn better from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration, and on-screen text.
Students learn better from a multimedia lesson when it is presented in user-paced segments rather than as a continuous unit.
students learn better from graphics and narrations than from animation and on-screen text.
Students learn better from multimedia lessons when words are in conversational style rather than formal style.
Students learn better when the narration in multimedia lessons is spoken in a friendly human voice rather than formal style.
People do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the speaker's image is added to the screen.
How do you feel about applying Mayer's principles to your multimedia selections?
Testing Our Skills
As a group, let's review the following. Does it align with Mayer's twelve principles?
Hopefully, we all are striving to use multimedia in our instruction. However, few of us know that Richard Mayer (2009), designed a guide for teachers to use when considering using different forms of multimedia in their lessons. Following Mayer's 12 principles of multimedia instruction can help us to design and organize multimedia usage in our classrooms that will best serve our students.
In this example, we see a picture used to illustrate an atom. Words are presented closely to the picture representing them (Spatial Contiguity Principle) and the words are presented simultaneously (Temporal Contiguity Principle.
(image courtesy of livescience.com)
Here, the words that are associated with the
pictures of the parts of the atom are not close
to their picture.
(image courtesy of howstuffworks.com)
These pictures present corresponding words and their picture separately.
(left image courtesy of teaching with TLC.com. right image courtesy of itc.gsw.edu/)
Simulations, Videos and Games
In this video, we have a wonderful example of a great simulation product as well as a video. It shows graphics and narration, but has no on screen text (modality principle), there are no extraneous words or pictures (coherence principle), and the dialogue is conversational, friendly and human (personalization and voice principles). It also does not include the presenters image, which meets the idea of Mayer's image principle: it doesn't necessarily equal better learning when a speaker's image is used. (video: the scienceman.com via youtube.com).
In this example, we have a simulation with graphics, narration, and on-screen text. It also has distracting pictures on the side like the floor number, which is not relevant to the lesson. These violate Mayer's principles. (www.eduplace.com)
This set of math games are a great simple example of games with no extraneous music or sounds, no distracting graphics, and it is student paced, as they can choose addition, subtraction, multiplication, division on their own and in their own time. (http://www.arcademics.com/games/grand_prix/grand_prix.html)
After watching the videos, which of Mayer's principles do the videos adhere to, and/or violate?
What About Multimedia in Your Classroom?
Task: Pair up with a partner or small group. Provide your group with one form of multimedia that you have used or would like to use in your classroom and help each other to rate that multimedia form using Mayer's principles.
It is my sincere hope that this presentation helps you in the future to choose useful and appropriate multimedia to use in your classrooms.
Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia learning (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
(video: www.flocabulary.com via youtube.com
courtesy: latintutorial via youtube.com