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Timeline of Colonial America
Transcript of Timeline of Colonial America
Settlement of the British Colonies:
Selected Moments, Personalities, and Connections to the Present
Failed Attempt: Lost Colony of Roanoke (1590)
The Virginia Company Settles Jamestown:
England's First Permanent Colony
Almost twenty years after the failed colony of Roanoke, England again decided to settle in North America; this time, they tried modern-day
. Like Roanoke, Britain settled Jamestown as an
; in fact, the
Virginia Company of London
founded the colony in hopes of making a
(money left over after expenses are deducted).
Those who settled the land were promised that, under the
Charters of the Virginia Company
, they would be
guaranteed the rights of Englishmen
. The idea that rights could be guaranteed was a
big influence on our U. S. Constitution
, written almost 200 years later.
In its early years, Jamestown suffered some hard times--including the Starving Time. This was a
of colonization. Eventually, the colony succeeded to become
the first permanent British colony
in the New World, in part because of the cultivation of tobacco as a
Jamestown: First Meeting of House of Burgesses;
First Arrival of Africans (1619)
Separatists Establish Plymouth Colony (1620)
were a religious group that suffered
(mistreatment) in England because of their religious beliefs. They wanted
from the Church of England and settled the
in search of
(You may know the Separatists by their more
common name, the Pilgrims.)
On their way to North America, their ship, the Mayflower, veered off course. The men on board the ship signed an agreement called the
, where they promised to work together to make laws for the "general good." This document was
an example of self-government that influenced the U. S. Constitution
Puritans Establish Massachusetts Bay Colony (1624)
The Puritans were a group who also suffered religious persecution because of their beliefs. They wanted to
PURIFY (reform or clean up)
the Church of England. They started the Massachusetts Bay Colony (located in modern-day
to escape religious persecution (mistreatment)
for people who shared their beliefs.
The leader of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, wanted his colony to serve as an example to the rest of the world--he said it should be as a
"city upon a hill."
Many Presidents have quoted this speech to express that the U. S. should be
an example to the rest of the world
. Massachusetts Bay was intolerant to (did not accept) those who were NOT Puritans: The colony kicked out (banished) Roger Williams for his beliefs;he went on to found Rhode Island as a haven (safe place) for religious diversity (differences). The colony also was infamous for the Salem Witch Trials, an incident where people accused of witchcraft were executed.
William Penn Establishes Pennsylvania as a Quaker Colony (1681)
Pennsylvania is translated from Latin as
because William Penn settled and named this area in modern-day
in 1681. He did so for the
a religious group he belonged to
, that had not been treated well in England.
Quakers believe in pacifism or non-violence. Many Quakers became involved in the anti-slavery movement. However, Pennsylvania--like all the other British colonies--had slaves.
As a colony in the mid-Atlantic, Pennsylvania's tolerance for different religions helped to create the religious diversity for which the region was well known. The colony also featured Philadelphia, a thriving city and central location for the writing of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. One of the most famous colonists from Pennsylvania was Benjamin Franklin, scientist, writer, newspaperman, and statesman.
James Oglethorpe Founds Georgia Colony to Give Economic Freedom to Debtors (1732)
James Oglethorpe founded Georgia (located in modern-day
) as a way to provide
to those in
debt (those who owed money to others)
. He was committed to helping those in debt escape debtors' prison.
Georgia also had a geographic advantage: As the southernmost colony, Georgia served as a barrier to the Spanish colony of Florida. Of the 13 colonies, Georgia was the last one established. With Georgia under its control, the British Empire now controlled almost of the Atlantic Coastline, a geographic area rich in natural resources.
England's first attempt at a colony was in 1587 at Roanoke, located in the Outer Banks of modern-day
. Roanoke was founded as an
(a chance to make money).
Roanoke was not successful, however: While he went England to get supplies for his colonists (a stay that lasted 3 years, much longer than planned), the colony's leader, John White, returned to the Island in 1590 and realized that his fellow colonists had gone missing. His only visible clue of the colony was his ransacked belongings and the word CROATOAN carved on a tree. To this day, the settlers whereabouts remain a mystery, so the colony is remembered as the "Lost Colony."
...we found five Chests, that had been carefully
hidden of the Planters, and of the same chests
three were my own, and... many of my things were
broken, and my books torn from the covers, the
frames of some of my pictures and Maps rotten and spoiled with rain, and my armor almost eaten through with rust; this could be no other but the deed of the Savages....although it much grieved... I greatly joyed that I had safely found a certain token of their safe being at Croatoan."
-John White's Log, 1590
Where is everyone?
Primary Source Spotlight
HISTORY IN THE NEWS
Sweet and wholesome?
CHARTERS Of the va company
HIstory in the news
The year 1619 marked two landmark events that expose a fundamental contradiction in American history: the tug-of-war between freedom and slavery. The House of Burgesses, a law making (legislative) branch for the Jamestown colony, first met this year. Although only white male property owners could vote, this was the beginning of
in the future
U. S., a government where citizens elect
leaders who will represent or act on their behalf
The same year, a Dutch ship arrived in Jamestown with Africans aboard. Although it is not clear if these first Africans to arrive in Jamestown did so as slaves or indentured servants, this event marked a turning point. Before long, the society of the Jamestown colony--and eventually all 13 colonies--would be defined by slavery, a system
from indentured servanthood because it was a
permanent condition that was based on race, and inherited
(children of those enslaved were born into slavery).
MEETING OF THE HOUSE OF BURGESSES
ARRIVAL OF FIRST AFRICANS AT JAMESTOWN
IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virginia; Do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually, in the Presence of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid: And by Virtue hereof do enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions, and Officers, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience.
"COMBINE OURSELVES TOGETHER INTO A CIVIL BODY POLITICK"
PRIMARY SOURCE SPOTLIGHT
“For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken… we shall be made a story and a by-word [example] throughout the world.”
But I have been guided by the standard John Winthrop set before his shipmates on the flagship Arbella three hundred and thirty-one years ago, as they, too, faced the task of building a new government on a perilous frontier.
"We must always consider," he said, "that we shall be as a city upon a hill—the eyes of all people are upon us."
Today the eyes of all people are truly upon us—and our governments, in every branch, at every level, national, state and local, must be as a city upon a hill—constructed and inhabited by men aware of their great trust and their great responsibilities.
REAGAN' S TAKE
SALEM WITCHCRAFT IN THE NEWS
colonial philadelphia: "tHE CITY OF bRotherly love"
PRIMARY SOURCE SPOTLIGHT
“In America there are fertile lands sufficient to subsist [to nourish, to provide for] all the useless Poor in England, and distressed Protestants in Europe; yet Thousands starve for want of mere sustenance [support or nourishment]. The distance makes it difficult to get thither [there]. The same want that renders [makes] men useless here, prevents their paying their passage; and if other pay it for 'em, they become servants, or rather slaves for years to those who have defrayed [paid for] the expense. Therefore, money for passage is necessary, but is not the only want. . . .”