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Vietnam

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Rob Beasterfield

on 6 May 2010

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Transcript of Vietnam

Vietnam War How did American Involvement in Vietnam escalate? American Presidents

Eisenhower - President when the conflict began. Pledged that South Vietnam would not fall to Communism.

Kennedy- His approach to the war was to support the South Vietnamese Army through military advisors and special forces like the Green Beret. He even considered removing some of the few troops the US had in Vietnam prior to his assassination.

Johnson - Was given authorization by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to do whatever was necessary in Vietnam. Sought on several occasions to end the war by ceasing bombings. Though ee was expected to run for a second term, he chose not to in order to put all his energy into ending the war.

Nixon- Won the Presidential election with the promise to end the war. His policy toward the war was called “Vietnamization.” He secretly ordered bombing of Cambodia.

Ford - Declared the Vietnam War finished.
Key leaders of South Vietnam:
Ngo Dinh Diem-He was the first president of South Vietnam
Nguyen Van Thieu - General and President of South Vietnam. Key leaders of North Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh- Vietnamese Communist Revolutionary, prime minister,
and president of North Vietnam.
Le Duc Tho - Vietnamese Revolutionary, general, diplomat, and
politician.
Westmoreland-He commanded 16,000 men in 1964. He thought the Viet Cong could be defeated through large-scale use of artillery, air power, and large-unit battles.
General Creighton Abrams- U.S. Commander in Vietnam, 1968-72.
Paul Harkins-served as the first commander of Military Assistance Command of vietnam.
Frederick Weyand- he replaced General Crieghton Abrams in June,1972
Lewis Walt- Commanded the third marine division in 1965.
John S. McCain, Jr.-Commander in chief of Pacific naval forces 1968-72.
Key American diplomats in Vietnam War
Kissinger - American Diplomat the helped reach the Peace
Agreement. Received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work.
Le Duc Tho - North Vietnam Diplomat. He was awarded
the Nobel Peace Prize but refused it. What is the War Powers Act? How did it change the power of the U.S. president to wage war Gulf of Tonkin incident and resolution Timeline of key events of the war Documentation American involvement in Vietnam escalated when on August 2, 1964, the US destroyer Maddox was attacked by three North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. As a result of this, President Johnson was given approval by Congress to increase military action. The War Powers Act was approved by both houses of Congress in 1973. This resolution stated that the President could not send US military into battle without authorization from Congress or only when the US had already been attacked. This resolution resulted from the many intense conflicts the US was involved in during the Korean and Vietnam War without an actual declaration of war. Because the Constitution states that the President is Commander-In-Chief, this act is considered by some to be unconstitutional. President Nixon vetoed it at the time but it was overriden by a two-thirds majority in both houses. 1954
Eisenhower explains the “Domino Theory.“ Just like with a row of dominos, when one falls the rest will fall, he is concerned that when one country in Southeast Asia falls to Communism, the rest will fall. Vietnamese gain control of Vietnam by defeating the French. Communist control of Vietnam is a possibility 1955
China and the Soviet Union pledge more financial support for North Vietnam.
1956
French leave Vietnam and US Military Assistance Advisor Group begins training South Vietnam forces.
1957
Communist Guerillas from North Vietnam begin activity in South Vietnam. Terrorist bombings result in American personnel being injured.
1959
Weapons are moved from North to South Vietnam along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
1960
John F. Kennedy is elected president of US. National Liberation Front is formed and called "Vietcong."
1961
Vice President Johnson visits South Vietnam. Speaks with South Vietnam President, Diem, regarding US objects in Vietnam and how important he is.
1962
“Agent Orange” is used to clear vegetation where Vietcong might hide. American soldiers are exposed to the deadly chemical. US begins to doubt whether Diem is helping them accomplish their objective in Vietnam.

1963
Kennedy is assassinated and South Vietnamese overthrow Diem.
1964
The USS Maddox reports being attacked. This becomes known as the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is passed giving President Johnson authority to take whatever actions he believes necessary to defend Asia. Allows him to wage war without a formal Declaration of War.
Johnson wins presidential election on a platform that would reduce US involvement in Vietnam.

1965
US sustains bombing raids on North Vietnam called Operation "Rolling Thunder." US troops top 200,000.
1966
B-52’s are used to bomb North Vietnam. President Johnson meets with South Vietnamese Premier Nguyen Cao Ky promising to continue to support South Vietnam against the aggression of North Vietnam but will be watching to make sure South Vietnam is working to expand democracy.
1968
TheTet Offensive takes place. Considered a huge military defeat for the Communist but actually is a political and psychological victory for them. Johnson announces he won’t run for re-election. Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy are assassinated. Paris Peace Talks being. Nixon wins presidential election with a “law and order” platform.

1969
Nixon authorizes secret bombings of Cambodia without the knowledge of Congress or the American public. “Vietnamization” policy is announced with shift the burden of responsibility to the South Vietnamese rather than US troops. Ho Chi Minh dies. Americans learn of the My Lai Massacre and the atrocities committed by Calley and his troops. Massive antiwar demonstrations take place in Washington.

1970
Four antiwar demonstrators at Kent State in Ohio are killed when Guardsmen open fire on the violent crowd. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho being secret talks. The number of US troops drops to 280,000.
1971
Nixon plans to visit China. Pentagon Papers are publishing in the New York Times despite Nixon’s appeal to the Supreme Court to protect sensitive information found in them. The Papers are filled with lots of the deception surrounding the war. 1972
Nixon reduces US Troops by 70,000. Secret Peace Talks are revealed. Kissinger announces “peace is at hand.” Nixon wins reelection.
1973
Cease Fire signed and goes into effect on January 28. The end of the draft is announced and last US Troops leave Vietnam. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho win Nobel Peace Prize.
1974
War begins again. Communists take over Mekong Delta Territory. Nixon resigns. Devastating effects of Agent Orange on the environment of Vietnam as well as soldiers is reported. Communist forces are at their highest level ever in South Vietnam.
1975
President Ford announces that as far as the US is concerned the Vietnam War is finished. South Vietnam President surrenders to the Communist on April 30th.
We got invovled in vietnam war because of many different reasons because of the gulf of tokin incedent, strategy of the national liberation front and the democratic republic of vietnam. Key American military leaders in Vietnam War: "Vietnam." Encarta. Deluxe. Microsoft Corporation, 2004. Print.

Military Leaders in the Vietnam War." VietnamWar.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr 2010. http://www.vietnamwar.net/militaryleaders.htm.

"Vietnam War Timeline." Modern American Poetry. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr 2010. http://www.english.illinois.edu/MAPS/vietnam/timeline.htm.

"Battlefield:Vietnam/Timeline." n. pag. Web. 29 Apr 2010. http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/timeline/index.html.

"Vietnam War: Major Battles." Howstuffworks "History of Vietnam". Web. 29 Apr 2010. http://history.howstuffworks.com/asian-history/history-of-vietnam.htm/printable
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