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Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences
Transcript of Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences
Parentheticals or Asides
Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices
Critical Skills Workshop
Although it seems obvious, the best way to avoid these well-known errors and less common errors is to learn how to use commas correctly.
Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) joining independent clauses within a sentence.
Use commas to separate words, phrases, and clauses in a series.
The Tudors, for example, ruled for over a century.
Introductory Phrases & Clauses
After years of anxiety over the family's finances, Linda Loman looks forward to the day the mortgage will be paid off.
Although she was virtually unknown in her day, scholars have come to recognize the originality of her work.
Use a comma after a long introductory phrase
Use commas to set off a nonrestrictive modifier--that is, a modifier that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
Comma Splice and Run-ons
Comma Splices and Run-Ons
When Not to Use Commas
Critics praise the novel's unaffected, unadorned style. (The adjectives "unaffected" and "unadorned" each modify "style.")
For detailed explanation on using commas, you might want to check out the libraries selection of grammar, usage and style books.
Materials for this workshop are taken from Purdue OWL, the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th Ed.), and the Mosaics 6th ed.
Congress passed the bill, and the president signed it into law.
The poem is ironic, for the poet's meaning contrasts with her words.
Boccaccio's tales have inspired plays, films, operas, and paintings.
Alfred the Great established a system of fortified towns, reorganized the military forces, and built a fleet of warships.
In the Great Depression, millions lost their jobs, businesses failed, and charitable institutions closed their doors.
Use a comma between coordinate adjectives--that is, adjectives that separately modify the same noun.
A famous photo shows Marianne Moore in a black tricornered hat. (The adjective "black" modifies "tricornered hat.")
Use commas to set off a parenthetical comment, or an aside, if it is brief and closely related to the rest of the sentence.
California, I might add, is a popular tourist destination.
Words in Apposition
Clauses that begin with Who, Whom, Whose, Which, and That
Isabel Allende, the Chilean Novelist, will appear at the arts forum tonight.
The Chilean novelist Isabel Allende will appear at the arts forum tonight.
Scientists, who must observe standards of objectivity in their work, can contribute usefully to public-policy debates.
Scientists who receive the Nobel Peace Prize sometimes contribute usefully to public-policy debates.
The novel takes place in China, where many languages are spoken.
The novel takes place in a land where many languages are spoken.
Fixing a Run-on or Comma Splice is as easy as identifying what makes a sentence complete.
I went to the store, I bought some food.
The story is good it breaks your heart.
Many of Toni Morrison's books have been banned, her books are good.
I agree with Bishops's critique he makes a strong point.
John drove to the store he needed eggs.
Turn the clauses into two separate sentences by adding a period.
Use a coordinating conjunction to join two clauses in a sentence.
Use a semicolon like you would a period, but you don’t need to capitalize the second clause.
Add a subordination like when, where, therefore, after, etc.
Know the proper use of commas and you'll avoid commas splicing and run-ons
Do not use a comma between subject and verb.
Do not use a comma between verb and object
Do not use a comma between the parts of a compound subject, compound object, or compound verb.
Do not use a comma between two parallel subordinate elements.
And of course...
never use a comma to separate two independent clauses
A run-on sentence occurs when when two independent clauses are spliced together with a comma. Hence, comma splice.
The flowers are beautiful, and they brighten the room.
Go through the text you brought for today and highlight four sentences where commas are used. Rewrite those sentences without commas.
Commas with Direct Quotations
& Other Uses of Commas
My friends often say, "You are so lucky."
"You are so lucky," my friends often say.
"You are so lucky," says mt grandmother, "to have good friends."