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Comparative World Religion

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kathryn roche

on 6 March 2013

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Transcript of Comparative World Religion

The question reminds me of St. Augustine’s quote about time: “If you do not ask me what time is, I know. If you ask me, I do not know.” It seems the same with religion. Everybody knows what religion is before you ask them. But if you ask them what religion is, they will find it very hard to define! Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judaism was the first religion based on monotheism, the belief in one God. All of the major Western religions found their roots in Judaism.
Oldest Monotheistic Religion
Jewish worship and study often takes place at a synagogue, and religious services often include prayer and readings from the Torah. Services held in a synagogue are traditionally led by a rabbi.
United by a common heritage, yet divided in contemporary practices of Judaism include:
Orthodox (Most traditional)
Conservative (moderates response to reform)
Reformed (18th Century Germany)
Reconstructionalist (20th century America)
Therefore each sect, and for that matter, each congregation, maintains its own practices, traditions, and interpretations of Jewish law. Judaism Dictionary Definition What is Religion? Comparative World Religion Define religion in your own terms.. 1. Oldest Monotheistic Religion (3,000 years) Judaism 2.Is the expression of the relationship between God and the Children of Isreal This is the holiest day in the Jewish Calender
Atonements and Repentance: Opportunity to turn your thoughts inward and use the period for self- examination.
Those repent for their transgressions, both as a community and as individuals, they accept responsibility for ones actions, and seek and offer forgiveness.
Yom Kippur concludes the 10 days of repentance. It begins on Rosh HaShanah.
Those, observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services
Fasting- act of willingly abstaining from all food, drink, or both for a period of time.
Absolute fast- is normally defined as an abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually a single day (24 hours), or several days.
Factors that influences this: Children under the age of 9 are not allowed to fast.
Girls, 12 years of age and older, and boys, 13 years or older, are required to participate in the full 25 hour fast along with adults
However, pregnant women, women who have recently given birth and anyone suffering from a life-threatening illness are not required to observe the fast. values life above the observance of Jewish law. Yom Kippur- Day of Atonement Hanukkah, Chanukah Location of Israel and Palestinian land Jews feel entitled to Israel
Ongoing boarder disputes between Israelis and Palestinians Palestinian Viewpoint Jewish Viewpoint Who is entitled to the territory of Palestine? From 1516-1917, Palestine was ruled by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1830's an Egyptian vassal of the Ottomans, Muhammad Ali, and his son, Ibrahim Pasha took over.
Rashid Khalidi argues that the modern Arab national identity of Palestinians emerged among the peoples of the Ottoman empire and sharpened following the World Wars.
Palestinians have been trying to become a sovereign country (having independent authority over a geographic area) prior to the Zionist movement.(Those is support of a Jewish nation state). Jewish people have been in the land of Israel dating back to 66.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 was the decisive event of the First Jewish-Roman War. The Roman army, led by the future Emperor Titus, with Tiberius Julius Alexander as his second-in-command, besieged and conquered the city of Jerusalem, which had been occupied by its Jewish defenders.
The siege ended with the sacking of the Jerusalem.
The Four Holy Cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed, and later Tiberias,were established as the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of Palestine
European Jews emigrated to Palestine, their ancestral homeland (Jerusalem).
Palestine was and still is a geographical territory or region; therefore,constant disputes between Israelis and Palestinians still exist. Torah "Written Law" Talmud or "Oral Law" Jewish worship and study often takes place at a synagogue, and religious services often include prayer and readings from the Torah.
Services held in a synagogue are traditionally led by a rabbi and assisted by a cantor, who leads the chanting and songs which accompany prayer
Friday evening is time for worship. This 'Written law' has been supplemented by oral law and interpretations of the law which comprise the Talmud.
The Talmud explains and clarifys how the commandments are to be carried out. The Jewish people are... A nation in Diaspora (dispersed)
15-16 million in worldwide population
Most of the world's Jews are concentrated in three countries: the United States (six million), Israel (3.7 million), and the Soviet Union (2.5 million). Worship Synagogue's in the Kalamazoo Area 1) Congregation of Moses (Conservative)
2)
(Orthodox) What is Religion? ...Maybe it's whatever you want it to be a system of symbols, myths, doctrines, ethics, and rituals for the expression of ultimate relevance.
Is this close to what your definition would be? Signs Vs. Symbols -isms: Types of Believing Deism- Belief in a creator that no longer intervenes.
Theism- Belief in god or gods
Agnosticism- Uncertainty of a higher power
Pantheism- Belief that god is in all things
Polytheism- belief in many gods
Monotheism- Belief in a single god
Animism- Belief that spirits inhabit all things
Shamanism- Those with unique abilities communicate with spiritual world
Absolutism- “Only way to God is thru Jesus.” IT is the way!
Atheism- Religion is an illusion
Relativism- “There are many ways to the same goal.”
Pluralism- Accept, respect all religious views and make sure they respect yours. Some of you may be thinking... then why learn about religion? Contributes to our understanding of other cultures and their religious backgrounds
we are living in an increasingly diverse, multicultural country.
Being familiar with the religions of others can help foster positive human interactions in society and in the work place.
Understand controversial perspectives Comparative World Religion What is religion? Signs can tell us what to do or what to identify with. Such as
Symbols can be signs, but it goes deeper. It represents something deeper. Nation revival movement Zionism- is a form of nationalism of Jews and Jewish culture that supports a Jewish nation state in the territory defined as the Land of Israel.
Advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority in their own nation, and to be liberated from antisemitic discrimination, exclusion, and persecution that had historically occurred in the diaspora Encapsulates all religions Evolutionism Vs. Creationism Evolutionism Creationism Evolutionists would state that, if all humans descended from two individuals several thousand years ago, it would require a seemingly impossibly high mutation rate to account for the observed variation. Film:180 Degrees South Yvon Freedom of Religion The 1st Amendment to the US Constitution covers “Freedom of Religion.”
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment01/
Under the Religion Clause, citizens of the United States have a right to Free Establishment and Free Exercise
Establishment Clause=Prohibits the establishment of a national religion and the preference by the U.S. government of one religion over another (Believe what you want)
Exercise = practice as you want as long as it is within the law. Important Religion Court Cases 1970-Lemon v. Kurtzman - To be constitutional, a statute must have "a secular legislative purpose," it must have principal effects which neither advance nor inhibit religion, and it must not foster "an excessive government entanglement with religion." Thus, “The Lemon Law.”
1984- Wallace v. Jaffree Prayer in public schools violates 1st amendment. Continuation of Court Cases 1971- Wisconsin v. Yoder The State violated religious’ rights of Amish who argued against children going to school past 16.
1992-Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah Animal sacrifice as part of religious ceremony WAS acceptable.
1989-Employment Division v. Smith- State CAN fire for illegal drug use even if used during religious ceremony. Public Schools(Federally Funded) vs. Private Catholic School (Not federally funded)
Not required to day the Pledge of Allegiance-Our national motto is “One Nation Under God“

Controversies that came out of the Exercise Clause:
The Supreme Court interprets the US constitution.
Each cases is handled individually- due to diversity/societal change
The first case to closely examine the scope of the Free Exercise Clause was Reynolds v. United States in 1879. A case dealing with the prosecution of a polygamist under federal law, and the defendant's claim of protection under the Free Exercise Clause, the Court upheld the law and the government's prosecution.
Supreme Court (those who just interpret in the Constitution) ruling
Christmas Tree Separation of Church(religion) and State (government) Evolution:is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations Creationism- The Life, the earth, and the universe are the creation of a supernatural being Scientific Theory of evolution (Darwin) Religion vs. Other Values Ultimate- Religion deals with values, but not all values are religious. What is ultimately valuable?
Utilitarian- Deals with values whose relevance is related to survival or pleasure.
Ulterior – Values are irrational or obsessive compulsive Charles Darwin Research on Galapagos Island Evidence supports evolution DNA Similarities Embryonic Stages Fossils Transition stage between fish and lizard found No position how Earth/Universe was created Beliefs can differ from religion to atheism Evolution is Science Created by a super natural being/beings Genesis 1:1 Abrahamic Religions: Christianity, Judaism, and Islam Implies a purpose Creators of the Universe Allah(Arabic for 'God')-Believed by Muslims who practice Islam (Koran) Yahweh(Hebrew for 'God')-Believed by Jews who practice Judaism Spontaneous 'incarnation'(In Christian Theology) the embodiment of God, the son in human flesh as Jesus Christ)- Adam and Eve (Put there by God) Controversies "We are all descendents of Adam and Eve" God creates the world in 7 Days (Technically 6. Sabbath day) God- Believed by Christians who practice Christianity (Bible) Believe that the universe, our solar system, Earth and all of the plants, animals and even mankind was fully created in a single event occurring 6,000 years ago. Calculations from the bible state that Earth was created approximately 6,000 years ago. Through Carbon Dating, Science states that Earth is 4.54 Billion Years old Change in gene pool from generation to generation 'Darwinism' - What is the environment that they live in and how do they adapt to it? "Survival of the fittest" Western Wall-Mount Moriah, know later as Temple Mount. People gather from around the world to pray here. People write notes to God and place them between the ancient stones of the Wall.
It has been a site for Jewish prayer and pilgrimage for centuries
With the rise of the Zionist movement in the early 20th century, the wall became a source of friction between the Jewish community and the Muslim religious leadership, who were worried that the wall was being used to further Jewish nationalistic claims to the Temple Mount and Jerusalem. Shabbat/Shalom Shabbat (sha-bat)- This is the Hebrew word literally meaning a 'ceasing' or 'stopping.' The word is always used in the Hebrew Bible for the seventh day, the Shabbat, the day of work ceases for the purpose of rest.
It is also a time for 'holy' gatherings Shalom (sha-lome)- 'to make whole,' 'complete,' and 'peaceful.' it is not speaking about an absence of war (though that is part of it) but that Jerusalem (and by extension all of Israel) is peaceful. (Between man and God or between two countries. "Shabbat Shalom" together.
"May your day of no work be peaceful" -- could have similar variants Messiah is a Savior or liberator of a people in the Abrahamic religions (Christianity, Judaism, and Islam).
They await(eventual coming) the Messiah, who will be an earthly king. They believe in heaven, but that God determines where they go after life on earth. ex- do YOU meet these requirements?
Christian Belief: Christians commonly refer to Jesus as either the "Christ" or the "Messiah." Christians believe the Messianic prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of Jesus Shokeling The lower cracks of the chalky, yellow-white blocks have been stuffed with bits of paper containing written prayers. Orthodox Jews can be seen standing at the wall, chanting and swaying. Hannakah: Rugrats Chanukah History The Western Wall was built by King Herod in 20 BC
In 70 AD, the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and its Temple.
For centuries, the Western Wall could accommodate only a few hundred densely packed worshipers.
During the 1967 Six-Day War, the Israeli Defense Forces conquered Jerusalem and liberated the Temple Mount, reclaiming Jewish control over the area for the first time since the destruction of the Second Temple.The Western Wall Plaza, which can accommodate tens of thousands of pilgrims. Shuckling (also written as shokeling), meaning "to shake", is the ritual swaying of worshipers during Jewish prayer, usually forward and back but also from side to side. This practice can be traced back to at least the eighth century. It is believed to increase concentration and emotional intensity Western Wall Traditional Wear A kippah, also known as a yarmulke, is a hemispherical or platter-shaped cap, usually made of cloth, often worn by Orthodox Jewish men to fulfill the customary requirement in that their head must be covered at all times
In traditional Jewish communities, women will wear head coverings David and Goliath Our word "Palestine" comes from these Philistines - the Greeks
The Philistines attacked the Jews again.
Film- Troy (Comparison, take the best)
this is the story of David and Goliath in the Bible.
Goliath would represent the Philistines.
David would represent the Isrealites- Hebrew people (we now refer to them as Jewish people) The most holy Jewish book is the Torah (the first five books of the Christian Bible)
There are 613 commandments included in the Torah, which also includes the "Ten Commandments."
These 613 commandments govern Jewish law and provide instruction on how to live.
Hebrew is read right to left Place of Worship Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are referred to as the three patriarchs of Isreal.
Responsible for people of Isreal.
The biblical patriarch of the Israelites is Jacob, who wrestled with God who gave him a blessing and renamed him "Israel" because he had "striven with God and with men, and have prevailed.
The biblical term "Israelites' (Children of Israel) means both the direct descendants of the patriarch Jacob (Israel).
In the 5th century BC, the remnants of the Israelite tribes came to be referred to as Jews. The Thirteen Principles- Maimonides" also known as "The Rambam" Maimonides refers to these thirteen principles of faith as "the fundamental truths of our religion and its very foundations.
Moses Maimonides
Two of the thirteen include:
Belief in the existence of the Creator, who is perfect in every manner of existence and is the Primary Cause of all that exists.
The belief in the arrival of the Messiah and the messianic era. http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/religion/jews/david.htm The original purpose of the story was to show David's identity as the true king of Israel
Film: Prince of Egypt First King At this time the Jews did not have a king, but were ruled by judges.
The Hebrews would come together every once in a while under a judge to face a threat.
Once the threat was gone, however, they’d fall apart again.
Eventually, they decided they needed a king (hey, everybody else had one!)
Saul is appointed as the first king. He was tall and good-looking.
This kingdom is called Israel. Saul, according to the Bible, falls out of favor with God and David is appointed king. David’s son
Made Jerusalem into impressive capital (built temple and palace)
He was praised for his wisdom
Solomon (according to the Bible) built the first stone temple in Jerusalem to hold the Ark of the Covenant, which had inside it the Ten Commandments which God had given to Moses. King Solomon Origin: The Patriarchs and Egypt The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph ("Isreal") - origins of the Hebrew people (more than 3800 years ago)
They founded the religion now known as Judaism, and their descendants are the Jewish people.
Note: the terms "Jew" and "Judaism" were not used generally to refer to this nation until hundreds of years after their time
when narrowly defined, Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob, also named Israel, are the ancestors of the Israelites.
These three figures are referred to collectively as the patriarchs of Judaism, and the period in which they lived is known as the patriarchal age.
They play significant roles in Hebrew scripture during and following their lifetimes. Egypt and the Paraoh Eventually the Hebrew people migrate into Egypt because of famine under the direction of Joseph.
Under the new Pharaoh, the Jews are enslaved and forced to labor and build buildings for him.
Moses' Hebrew mother, Jochebed, hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed
After killing an Egyptian slave-master, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian where he encountered the God of Israel in the form of a "burning bush". Before watching think about...
Underestimation of David's abilities by Goliath and Philistine King.
The disadvantages/advantages prior going to battle?
Later David became the king of the Jews, and after him Solomon became the king of the Jews. Battle of David and Goliath The Book of Exodus- Jews leaving Egypt God sent Moses back to Egypt to request the release of the Israelites. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai
The Hebrews spend a long time wandering around the Sinai Peninsula. 10 Comandments The Ten Commandments served as the basis for Jewish law.
The full code was much more detailed and governed all sorts of social and religious conventions.
613 total sub-commandments in the Torah
Led to ethical monotheism: living justly in relation to God and to other people.
They are..
1) I am the Lord thy God.. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me
2)Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or worship one
3) Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord in vain (G-d)
4) Remember the sabbath day and keep it holy
5) Honor they father and mother
6)Thou shalt not kill (murder)
7) Thou shalt not bear false witness
8) Thou shalt no steal
9) Thou shalt not bear falst witness
10) Thou shalt not covet they neighnor's possessions. 10 Commandments While in the Sinai, Moses receives the Ten Commandments... at the top of Mt. Sinai
According to the story in Exodus, God inscribed them on two stone tablets, which he gave to Moses on Mount Sinai.
After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land. The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy
Tikkun Olam - “repairing this world” through justice and righteousness; through “deed, not creed”The heart of Judaism is in the home and family, social responsibility and doing Mitzvot (“good deeds” based on God’s commandments)Through education and hard work we make our lives, the lives of others, and the world, what God intended it to be – Holy! Down the road.. As centuries passed, the descendants of Israel became slaves in Egypt. They suffered greatly under the hand of later Pharaohs. But G-d brought the Children of Israel out of Egypt under the leadership of Moses.
The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy Abraham According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was born under the name Abram in the city of Ur in Babylonia from Creation.
His father was an idol whorshipper who worshipped the sun.
Since Abrahams early childhood, he questioned the faith of his father and sought the truth.
He came to believe that the entire universe was the work of a single Creator, and he began to teach this belief to others. (His faith growing stronger everyday)
his son Isaac,
Isaac's son Jacob, later given the name 'Israel',
and Jacob's 12 sons who founded the twelve tribes of Israel
The Jewish people are generally referred to as the Children of Israel, signifying our descent from Jacob. Challah Challah: is a special Jewish braided bread eaten on Sabbath and holidays.
Sabbath Day: a day of religious observance and abstinence from work
Religious Significance: According to Jewish tradition, the three Sabbath meals begin with two complete loaves of bread.
This "double loaf" commemorates the manna that fell from the heavens when the Israelites wandered in the desert for forty years after the Exodus from Egypt according to Jewish religious belief. The manna did not fall on Sabbath or holidays; instead, a double portion would fall the day before the holiday or sabbath
Each single loaf is woven with six strands. Together, both loaves have twelve which represent each tribe of Israel. Why Dreidel? Chanukah is an eight day holiday which begins on the 25th day of the month of Kislev. It marks the miraculous victory of the Jews, led by the Maccabees, against Greek persecution and religious oppression. In addition to being victorious in war, another miracle occurred: When the Maccabees came to rededicate the Temple, they found only one flask of oil with which to light the Menorah. This small flask lasted for eight days. In order to commemorate this miracle, we light a Menorah for the eight days of Chanukah.

This year (5773 / 2012-2013) Chanukah begins at nightfall of December 9, 2012, and ends on December 16, 2012. On the evening before each one of the days, the corresponding number of Chanukah candles are lit. Jewish Calender
English Number Length Civil Equivalent
Nissan 1 30 days March-April
Iyar 2 29 days April-May
Sivan 3 30 days May-June
Tammuz 4 29 days June-July
Av 5 30 days July-August
Elul 6 29 days August-September
Tishri 7 30 days September-October
Cheshvan 8 29/30 October-November
Kislev 9 30/29 November-December
Tevet 10 29 days December-January
Shevat 11 30 days January-February
Adar 12 12 30 days February-March

2013: Tues-Wed Sept. 25-26
Full transcript