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Ayla Flickinger

on 22 July 2016

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Transcript of Jamaica!

Values Orientation
Expressive and sometimes viewed as loud talkers
Eye contact and hand gestures
Touch in conversations among close friends and family
“English (official), Creole. English is the official language of Jamaica. However, Patois (Creole), a combination of English and some African languages, is spoken in rural areas and is used increasingly in urban areas. Most Jamaicans can speak or understand Patois, but it is not a written language. Jamaican speech, even in English, has a distinctive rhythmic and melodic quality (Commiseco 2016).”
Arm’s length unless with close friends and family
Families are demonstrative with affection; hug and kiss
Used wisely and viewed as linear- Future oriented
Balance is sought in work/leisure time
Health Related Beliefs & Practices
Environmental Control
Weak Public Health System and are vulnerable to natural hazards
Healthcare financing and sustainability of health services are poor
Health care and prescription drugs in Jamaica are free to all citizens and legal residents at government hospitals and clinics but lines are long and care is often delayed
Jamaicans use a mix of traditional and bio medical healing practices
Majority of illnesses are treated holistically
Many holistic remedies come from “the bushes” meaning herbal medicines. When this fails traditional medicines are used.
Variety of cultural remedies :Bissy Tea made from kola nut is used often. Referred to as miracle medicine. It is said to remove poison from the body, stop vomiting, relieve upset stomach, nausea, menstrual cramps, headaches, gout, and controls diabetes.
Lemon grass oil AKA “fever grass” used to treat mosquito bites.
Flowering plant Moringa used to increase sex drive and treat impotency
Ginger root to treat joint inflammation
Castor oil and Jamaican beet juice, often blended, used to treat constipation
Kinship and Social Networks
Women and young girls enjoy having their hair done on a regular basis. Paying keen attention to their appearance. (Bailey, 2015)
It's imperative to show deference and respect to those in positions of authority. (Commisceo Global, 2016)
“The most common greeting is the handshake, with direct eye contact, and a warm smile”. (Commisceo Global, 2016)
Men pat each other’s shoulder or arm during greeting or while conversing. (Commisceo Global, 2016)
Always wait until invited before using someone’ s first name. (Commisceo Global, 2016) “Once a friendship is established, women may hug and kiss on each cheek, starting with the right.” (Commisceo Global, 2016)
“Jamaica moves at a much slower pace than for example the United States. There is more bureaucracy and less of a sense of urgency to accomplish tasks”(O’ Meally-Nelson, 2007).

Nutrition & Dietary Practices
Religion & Spirituality
Social Organization
Jamaican motto "out of many, one people"
An important Rastafarian concept is "I and I," which is said instead of "you and I." It emphasizes the oneness between humanity and God as well as the equality of all humans.
Environmental Control
External Locus of control: Believe fate, luck, and chance, influence how things turn out.
Rastafarians do not believe in an afterlife, but instead look to Africa (called "Zion") as a heaven on earth.
True Rastas believe to be immortal, both physically and spiritually, a concept called "everliving."
Biological Variations
Health is considered the presence or absence of illness
HIV/AIDS: every 17 out of 1000 residents in Jamaica has HIV.
Prevalent alcohol and drug abuse Hypertension, obesity, and elevated cholesterol are common health problems
Illness and or disability is viewed as a punishment for wrong doing or evil spirits
Social Organizations
Ninety percent are Christian Protestant faith
Many Christian holidays have traditional meals and drinks
Christmas dinner feast: jerk or curried chicken, goat with rice & gungo peas
Drink: made from dried sorrel plant, cinnamon, cloves, sugar, orange peel and rum served over ice Dessert: Jamaican Christmas cake or Black Jamaican cake
Rastafarian: spiritual belief that the body is a temple and must be kept clean and pure
Diet focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans & legumes, inspired African cooking
Environmental Control
Jamaica’s native food sources- indigenous to the island and Caribbean Sea
Many exotic spices and vegetables
Protein sources seafood, goat, beef, beans and legumes
Spices include ginger, nutmeg and allspice
“Jerking” is a native Jamaican method of spicing and slow cooking meat
Popular vegetables include ackee, plantain and cabbage.
Biological Variations
95% of Jamaicans are partial or total African descent
Nearly the whole population is native-born Jamaican
Biological similarities to the African American
Elaine Cafarelli
Catherine Dunton
Ayla Flickinger
Tiffany Jones
Micah Reynolds
“Mortality rates for males in Jamaica as a result of cancer are 1.4 times higher than for females. The reverse is true for diabetes mellitus, where mortality rates for women are 1.6 times higher than for males.
Cerebrovascular diseases rank first as a cause of death among females and second among males, although a decrease in deaths of females due to this cause is evident between 2007 and 2009.
Similar to Caribbean trends, males are at a significantly greater risk of dying as a result of homicides and transport accidents than are females” ("Health in the Americas," 2012, p. 6)
Jamaica has more churches per square mile than any other country. 1,600 are on the island.
No formal, organized leadership in Rastafarianism, creating a wide variety of spiritual and moral variation within the religion.
Church is typically held on Sunday, some churches also hold it on Saturday. The majority of the population goes to church every Sunday, regardless of how late Saturday night got, Jamaicans are still expected to show up on Sunday. Bibles are very well used.
Space & Time
Social Organization
Tolerant of other cultures and belief systems
Most families are Matriarchal
Family financial responsibilities are of great importance
Respectful but suspicious of authority
Responsible for self and loved ones
Dependable, ethical, polite
Identify with mainland people who are also descendants of slaves
Suspicious of political machinations-
Referred to as “politricks” as politicians can be tricksters
Most are Democrats
Historically very politically active
Many live and work in the U.S. illegally
Environmental Control
Combination of Inner and Outer Locus
Strong beliefs in a higher power; most are Christian
Competitive to be successful
Excellent work ethic, taught hard work = great reward
Education is highly valued
Remnants of indigenous African beliefs
Rastafarian philosophy of environmental conscience
Known to be entrepreneurial
Biological Variations
Most are descendents of African slaves
Similar to African Americans in health risks
Generally have concern for personal health well being
Mealtime: relaxing, social gathering of family and friends
Dining is very informal
Served in buffet style
Impolite to exclude a food item that has been provided
Sampling all food dishes is encouraged
Prayers are said before and after meals
Greet mealtime guests with a hug/ kiss
Men offer more than a handshake to their close friends and family
At large banquets people may sit closely; touching at the elbows and lower extremities Serving instruments: shared by all guests
Three main meals: breakfast, lunch and dinner
Most important meals: breakfast and dinner
Rude for guests to be tardy
Meal has no time limit unless assigned at work or school
Biological Variations
Environmental Control
“Jamaica ‘no problem’ accurately depicts the fun loving nature of a people who definitely support the old adage ‘all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy’” (O’ Meally-Nelson, 2007).
Despite the many difficulties the country faces, Jamaicans are naturally upbeat, engaging, and outgoing (O’ Meally-Nelson, 2007).
Social Organization
Jamaican parents are very strict.
Early on they urge their children to excel academically and athletically, they also encourage them to be discerning in regards to the company they keep.
Jamaican families remain a constant guiding force in their children’ s lives well beyond adulthood”. (Bailey, 2015)
Siblings are taught togetherness and looking out for each other.
The whole jamaican family is involved in raising children including grandparents, aunts, and uncles. (Bailey, 2015) Jamaican social class is largely determined by colour/shade. (O’ Meally-Nelson, 2007)
Jamaica whites and near whites are at the top of the social hierarchy where they dominate business, banking, and commerce. They have better educational opportunities.(O’ Meally-Nelson, 2007)
The middle class are the educated working class, darker in colour, less wealth, but strive for education as means for social mobility.”(O’ Meally-Nelson, 2007)
Social Organization
Jamaican families often provide emotional and economic support to each other.
Jamaica has the greatest number of churches per capita in the world with over 100 Christian denominations.
Obeah, a form of voodoo, is the belief that there are supernatural forces that can be harnessed for sickness or health.
Many believe it is a healing ritual using local bushes and natural remedies while others believe that invoking of spirits is an essential part of Obeah or that it is used to do evil or to ward off evil set by others.
Jamaicans are known to be direct when communicating and expect the same in return
English is primary spoken language
Creole is the native language
Patois, which is a mix of English and Creole. This is commonly spoken among the locals.
Time & Space

Jamaicans expect punctuality but not always punctual themselves.
Healthcare can take time.
Often patients wait in long lines at public health care facilities.
330 Health Centers, 24 public hospitals, 10 private hospitals, 495 pharmacies
Touch is common among this culture
Stand close when communicating
Biological Variations
80% of Jamaicans are Christian, most are Anglicanism, Protestantism, and Roman Catholicism.
Judaism, Muslim, Hindu, and Bahai religions are also practiced, as is Rastafarianism.
Rastafarianism places high regard on spirituality and meditation.
Rastafarianism uses ganja (marijuana) in their religious rites.
Rastafarians are known for wearing their hair in dreadlocks, wearing beards as a sign of a pact with God, and carrying Bibles.
Rastafarianism is known outside of Jamaica mainly because its famous believer, the late reggae musician Bob Marley, was an international star
(Every Culture, n.d.)
Bailey, M. J. (2015). The Typical Jamaican Family . Retrieved from http://jamaicans.com/typical_family/
Casey, J. (n.d.). Healthcare in Jamaica. Jamaica Magazine. Retrieved from http://jamaicans.com/health-care-in-jamaica/
Commisceo Global. (2016). http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/jamaica-guide Health in the Americas (2012). Pan American
Every Culture. (n.d.). Jamaicans. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Germany-to-Jamaica/Jamaicans.html
Giger, J. N. (n.d.). Transcultural nursing: Assessment & intervention.
Health Organization, Country Volume , 1-16. Retrieved from http://www.paho.org/saludenlasamericas/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=136&Itemid=
Jamaica. (n.d.). Retrieved July 06, 2016, from http://www.foodbycountry.com/Germany-to-Japan/Jamaica.html
Jamaica. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2016, from http://www.paho.org/jam/ Jamaican Culture. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/jamaica2307/healthcare-challenges
Jamaicans Natural Remedies. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.islandoutpost.com/outpostings/jamaicas-natural-home-remedies/
National Library of Jamacia. (n.d.). National Symbols | The National Library of Jamaica. Retrieved from https://www.nlj.gov.jm/?q=jamaican-national-symbls
O’ Meally-Nelson, B. (2007). Understanding the Jamaican Cultural Environment . Retrieved July 10th, 2016, from http://education.fiu.edu/jamaica/docs/understanding_the_jamaican_culture.pdf
Let us give thanks for all God's goodness and the wonderful heritage into which we have entered: For Jamaica, our Island home, the land of our birth -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For majesty of our hills, the beauty of our valleys, and the flaming loveliness of our gardens -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For the warmth and brightness of our days and the calm and peace of our countryside -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For the rich heritage of our people coming from many races, and yet one in purpose, in achievement, and in destiny, and for the dignity of labour and the service given by every citizen of our land -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For freedom, just laws and our democratic way of life -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For high privilege and responsibility of Independence and for bringing us to nationhood -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For our parents, teachers, religious and other leaders and all those who in every walk of life are helping to prepare us for responsible, citizenship, and for all those who are giving voluntary service in the public interest -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For the poets, artists and thinkers and all who create in us the vision of a new better society -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
For godly heritage, the example of Jesus Christ and the sacrifices of our fathers in the faith -
Response: We give Thee thanks, O God.
National Jamaican Prayer
Out of Many, One People
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