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LGBT Identity Development
Transcript of LGBT Identity Development
LGBT Identity Development Models
Cass's Model of Sexual Orientation Identity Formation (1979)
Fassinger's Model of Gay & Lesbian Identity Development (1996, 1997)
D'Augelli's Model of Lesbian, Gay, & Bisexual Development (1994)
Billodeau's Proposed Model for Transgender Identity Development, as Modified from D'Augelli's Model (2005,2009)
Introduction to Cass's Model
Originally studied gay men, expanded to include lesbian women.
6 Stages and 1 "Pre-Stage"
Stage Progression is based on 3 components:
Perception of Self/Characteristics
Behavior as a result of Self Identitified Characterisitc
Outside Influences and Factors
Homosexual Identity Questionnaire (HIQ) & Stage Allocation Measure (SAM)
Introduction to Fassinger's Model
Sought to expand upon Cass's work and address limitations of other models
Introduced a Dual Identity Development Model, each with 4 Phases
Individual Sexual Identity Development
Group Membership Identity Development
Work on Lesbian Identity Development with Susan McCarn
Work on Gay Identity Development with Brett Miller
Introduction to D'Augelli's Model
Against Linear Progression Models of Identity Development- Life Span Model Introudction
Introduced the idea of interactive processes not stages
Believed in the fluidity of identity- identity changes based on societal pressures/culture, personal choices, relationships
Development is an active process for the individual versus solely reactionary
What stage identity development is Natlie in according to Cass's Model?
Does she fit into any of the models discucssed at all?
Do you feel that Natalie questioned her sexuality at all during the novel?
Dr. Vivienne Cass
Stages of Development
Perception as heterosexual
Critiques & Limitations
Influence of 1970's Culture
Assumptions about Identity Development
Lack of Research
Length of Study
Focused on Gay Males, not Generalizable
ABC Family's GREEK
What Stage of Cass's Model is Calvin's Friend in?
What About Calvin?
Dr. Ruth Fassinger
Phase 1: Awareness
Phase 2: Exploration
Phase 3: Deepening/Commitment
Phase 4: Internalization/Synthesis
ABC's Once Upon a Time
Character Case Study: Mulan
Where is Mulan in her Individual Development? What about potential Group Identity?
Dr. Anthony D'Augelli
Six Processes of
Exiting Heterosexual Identity
Developing a Personal LGB Identity Status
Developing a LGB Social Identity
Becoming a LGB Offspring
Developing a LGB Intimacy Status
Entering the a LGB Community
Limitations and Critiques
Significance of Disclosure
Understanding of Heterosexual lifestyle and how it relates
Theory to Practice
Areas for Consideration
Leadership Position Training
Retreats and Self Reflection Opportunities
GLBTA Pride Center or Similar Community
Campus Community as a Whole
Transgender Identity Development
Until recently, Transgender Identity Development has had a medical approach
Recently there has been research that suggests a Human Development approach
Brent Bilodeau's work adapts D'Augelli's model to fit the needs of Transgender Development.
Multidimensional, Fluid, Life Span Model
Bilodeau's Model of Transgender Identity Development
1) Exiting Traditionally Gendered Identity
2) Developing a Personal Transgender Identity
3) Developing a Transgender Social Identity
4) Becoming a Transgender Offspring
5) Developing a Transgender Intimacy Status
6) Entering a Transgender Community
Critiques and Limitations
Typcically Small Sample Sizes (1-2 Students)
One or Two Campus Environments
Not enough research in terms of Human Development Approach