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Collective Identity Revision

Some of the key theories for G325 Collective identity exam.
by

Andrew Nolan

on 13 May 2013

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Transcript of Collective Identity Revision

Key Theories For British Youth Representation Collective Identity Revision Empty Category (1997) Cultural Hegemony (1972) Henry Giroux

He argues that in media representations youth becomes an ‘empty category’.

Representations of young people are constructed by adults.

So they reflect adults concerns, anxieties, and needs. As a result of this media representations of young people do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity.
Ideology of Projection (1995) Charles Acland
The idea that young people need constant surveillance and
monitoring.

Media representations of young people out of control allow the state to have more control.

Media reports about delinquent youths led to ASBOs

Media representations of delinquent youths actually reinforce hegemony, by contrasting an idea of ‘normal’ adult and youth behaviour and contrasting it with unacceptable deviant behaviour. Antonio Gramsci

One social class is able to dominate a society by making their way of life and values appear normal.

As a result other social classes accept these values as the normal way of life.

A site of constant struggle - societies are constantly debating what is and isn't acceptable Use of Theory When using this theory answer the following questions:
Who constructed the representations?
Who is the text aimed at?
Do the representations reflect adult anxieties?
Do these anxieties reflect current affairs?
Do the representations serve the purpose of adult society? – hegemonic values Use of Theory Answer the following questions when discussing this theory

Do the representations show young people as behaving in an unacceptable way?
If so does it also identify what behaviour society deems acceptable?

Do the representations show working class youths to be deviant?
If so do they reinforce this by highlighting how the middle class behave better?
Use of Theory When using the theory in the exam you could focus on the positive representations of the working class in Misfits which challenge the perception of working class thugs.

You can also discuss the outrage within the middle class papers (Mail & Express) during the riots of 2011. Especially when 'middle class' youths were caught looting and sentenced Identity Negotiation Stella Ting-Toomey

Young people interact with others to create an identity.

This in turn develops a consistent set of behaviours that reinforce the identity of the person or group.

These behaviours then become social expectations
Use of Theory Consider these questions within the exam if using this theory:

How do the characters interact with each other?
Does the text show the development of any characters after being influenced by others?
How similar are the characters within the same group?
Is there an unwritten code on the way people must behave around others? Performativity Judith Butler

Identity is a performance based on social norms and habits, that includes daily behaviours of individuals.

Its not a fixed state of being but a free-flowing constantly changing performance.

It is about what you do rather than what you are Use of Theory Within the exam use this theory when outlining:

The way characters interact with different people
How a character responds to different situations
If within the text we see young people struggling with how they should act when others are around.
Are we shown the true character when they are faced with a challenging situation that calls on them to perform more than they want to.
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