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Week 4: Philology Week
Transcript of Week 4: Philology Week
He is normally a specialist of a given language and literature, and he worries about the preservation and transmission of a text.
A philologist will study everything that will help him understanding the text and its transmission. What is a Philologist? VIII VII VI V IV III II I VIII VII VI V IV III II I IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI Indirect Evidence "Wild" texts Manuscripts Ancient Scholarship (dictionaries, notes, commentaries) Quotes of Homer from other authors (Plato etc.) Nestor's Cup Homeridae
Rhapsode competitions Mostly Oral Transmission Alexandria Codex Parchment Print fragmentary texts, mostly on papyrus medieval copies of the text, mostly on parchment, in the shape of a book (codex). Byzantium Italy Vulgata text "Papyri" Scroll The Ambrosian Iliad Minuscule this is the Venetus A, our most important manuscript of the Iliad, copied in the X cent. CE. This image shows the beginning of Il. book II., lines 1-10. This is another image of the Venetus A codex, showing the commentary surrounding the text. Book II, lines: 263-273 The entire manuscript is available online! Scripts and Writing Materials Majuscule Minuscule our earliest complete manuscripts of Homer the first print edition of an ancient text is called EDITIO PRINCEPS (first edition).
For the Iliad, the EDITIO PRINCEPS is by Demetrius Chalcocondyles in 1488, in Florence. A print edition of Aristoteles by Aldus Manutius, a prominent italian publisher in the XVI cent. The Arabs invade Egypt! 1453: fall of Constantinople Indirect references from other authors? TEXTUAL CRITICISM Critical Apparatus Families of Manuscripts Original Text A modern Edition of a text Karl Lachmann after whom the Lachmann method (STEMMATIC method) is named.
He is famous for his edition of Lucretius (1850), which used the method very successfully. A sample of Greek Scripts Transmission and Corruption Original
text Archetipe Our Manuscripts Textual Critic Modern Edition Medieval Manuscripts Impossible to reconstruct! This we can reconstruct the text that originated our texts A textual Criticism Question You have to put together an edition of an ancient text.
You know that several ancient manuscripts exist for that text.
In order to make the edition you: a. Look for the OLDEST manuscript that you can find, and reproduce that faithfully.
b. Look for the BEST manuscript that you can find (the one that seems to have the cleanest, most reliable text), and reproduce that faithfully.
c. Look for the BEST manuscript that you can find, reproduce that faithfully, only correcting obvious mistakes.
d. Collect ALL the manuscripts that you can find, and compare them systematically, in order to determine how they are related to each other. Models of Textual Transmission A simple model Our oldest manuscript is the archetype! A more complex model Rome Athens The archetype is lost! we have to reconstruct the archetype by COMPARING our two manuscripts! Rama is great, Rama is mighty,
Rama does what Rama should. Rama is reat, Rama is good,
Rama does what Rama should. A small reconstruction exercise A yet more complex model Rome Athens The archetype is lost! 1350 CE 1100 CE 980 CE 950 CE 1200 CE what is the most valuable manuscript? STEMMATICS the method of sorting manuscripts into family trees ERRORS manuscripts can be grouped by the ERRORS that they share All manuscripts in a family will share the FAMILY ERRORS,
plus they will have some errors of their own. Not just ANY ERROR will do Q O this is a banal error that can happen at any time Mechanical Errors Unique Errors pants giraffes By using this method, we can reconstruct the transmission of the text, as well as THE ARCHETYPE. The method at work By studying how the errors must have been transmitted from one manuscript to the other, we can reconstruct the family tree (STEMMA) of all the manuscripts.
We call this the LACHMANN METHOD. The basic principles Limits of the Lachmann Method So far we assumed that the text can only get worse overtime.
What if this is not the case? what if the scribe improves the text? what if the scribe consults multiple manuscripts from different families? what if there isn't a single ARCHETYPE, but an OPEN tradition? scribes were also scholars scribes too can try to make editions BC CE this is the "common" text that most of our manuscripts seem to reflect this is the result of scholarly work at Alexandria and during the Roman Empire. It is preserved in EXCERPTS in the MARGINS of some medieval manuscripts. Can you apply the method? You have 6 manuscripts of the first lines of the Iliad.
By comparing the manuscripts, establish what the original text (=the archetype) must have been like. Note that the archetype is not identical to any of the manuscripts below.
To solve the problem, use the STEMMATIC method (see pg. 211ff of Chapter 6 of Scribes and Scholars) – that is, build a family tree of the manuscripts, and determine which manuscripts are closest to the archetype. Then compare these to reconstruct the archetype.
Your solution will consist of two parts:
1. a family tree of the manuscripts (=STEMMA CODICUM)
2. the reconstructed text of the archetype The wrath, Sing, o Goddess, of Peleus’ son, Achilles,
Ruinous, which countless pains brought upon the Acheans D A C F B E Print Editions Siege of Constantinople as depicted between 1453 and 1475.