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Report Writing

Organizing and Outlining

cheryl fang

on 10 September 2012

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Transcript of Report Writing

At this stage, your PPQ can change depending on what data comes your way.

Some earlier decisions may have been made based on:

Questions may be recast to capture more significant data and information. Effect-Cause Functional Cause-Effect Functional Organising and Outlining
your report Gathering your material and data DOCUMENT SEARCH Ok, I've gathered my data What are the key things I must remember? Evaluate! Common Problems
Relevance! What next? Outline the content of your report Evaluate the relevance of your material Why outline? - It serves as a mind map for what you have written and a visual representation of relationships between ideas. Problems with data? Document has information that is
not totally relevant? Introduction, Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations and Over-all Conclusion General outline - Background of the Report Accommodate these data by revising your PPQ? Disregard them and focus on data that answer your key questions? Introduction COMMON WAYS TO PRESENT FINDINGS
CLEARLY AND LOGICALLY General Method to Present Findings: 2.1 Main Heading 1 2.1.1 Sub-Heading 1
2.1.2 Sub-Heading 2
2.1.3 Sub-Heading 3 2.2 Main Heading 2 2.2.1 Sub-Heading A
2.2.2 Sub-Heading B
2.2.3 Sub-Heading C Compare
& Contrast So what is Relevant? Use your key questions to find out whether your information and data are relevant or not If you are asking the wrong questions, you will be providing answers which do not address your problem! Cause - Effect So why must I be relevant? The more information I provide, the better the report? Effect - Cause 2.1 Extent of the problem
2.1.1 Overcrowding during peak hours
2.1.2 Faulty ventilation systems

2.2 Causes of the problem
2.2.1 Insufficient buses
2.2.1 Low maintenance by bus transportation company 2.1 Demand for cooking lessons

2.2 Availability of chefs to conduct cooking lessons

2.3 Rates to be charged Survey conducted by Websense based on key questions of report Chronological Chronological 2.1 12pm to 3pm
2.1.1 Accuracy of orders taken
2.1.2 Promptness in service

2.2 3pm to 6pm
2.2.1 Accuracy of orders taken
2.1.2 Promptness in service Problem:
Facebook's lapse of privacy controls has resulted in the leak of private data over the internet.

To find out how significant the problem is. We quantify this in terms of how many people were affected.

Question 1: To what extent were people affected?

Question 2: What measures has Facebook put in place to solve the problem? Data Relevant to Question? Yes! No! Change Question 2 to:
How effective were the new measures Facebook put in place to solve the problem? Don't worry,
your PPQ is not cast in ! Changing the PPQ, including your key questions, is always a possibility, especially: Know your PPQ Ensure a clear direction in your report! Point INTERVIEWS FOCUS GROUPS Objective Powerful tool to gather information, test new ideas and evaluate services Number of
people Role of
mediator 1 interviewer, 1 interviewee 1 interviewer, 6-10 interviewees More prominent role - Ask specific questions More facilitative role - Ensure that group boundaries are kept to and
group stays on track for discussion WHEN DO WE USE WHAT? QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY - Problem, Purpose, Question (PPQ) - Limitations - Sources and methods - Report organisation - Scope 1. Background research about the
targeted respondents 2. A pilot test needs to be conducted Requires researcher to work or live with her respondents or subjects in order to gather complex consumer insight and behavior OBSERVATION Involves watching or seeing what is
happening to people, objects or events
and making a systematic record of this information ETHNOGRAPHY PROS:
1. Very comprehensive
2. Easily accessible CONS:
1. Demands extensive
SOURCES Document Search Survey Focus Groups Interviews Ethnography Observation Are you
about the
topic? No Yes Interviews Focus
Groups REMEMBER: There is one research tool that is
better than another. NO In deciding on the research tools you need, always remember your PPQ. Survey reveals other details
not relevant to PPQ? Purpose: To identify a suitable venue for a career fair Cheryl, Douglas, Ya Yun, Jordon Main Heading: Factors affecting the problem
Sub-Heading: Things you are considering

2.1 Rental Cost
2.1.1 Suntec Convention Centre
2.1.2 Singapore Expo

2.2 Accessibility
2.2.1 Suntec Convention Centre
2.2.2 Singapore Expo Main Heading 1: Causes of the problem
Sub-Headings: (Respective causes)

Main Heading 2: Effects of the problem
Sub-Headings: (Respective effects) DO NOT FRET! > 166,000 units sold Cost rivals billions in revenue Compare & Contrast Where should we organize a career fair? So what do we do? Intuition Observation Impression We always make adjustments to our report as we are confronted with real evidence, or the lack of it. to broaden or to specify the scope of your work or research. Outlining the:
1) Conclusions
2) Recommendations
3) Over-all conclusion Conclusions VS Over-all Conclusion evaluate your data
summary and wrap-up Organizing your Conclusions Findings Section
Conclusions Section Explain your data! Main Heading 1: Most important
Main Heading 2: Secondary issue
Main Heading 3: Least important Organizing your Recommendations
2)Key findings
4)Recommendations summarizes: over-all conclusion Finding Section-
How to present them: 1)Compare and contrast
5)Chronological Main Heading 1: Most urgent
Main Heading 2: Secondary issue
Main Heading 3: Least important coach@dalecarnegie.com Cheryl, Douglas, Ya Yun, Jordon "First ask yourself, what is the worst that can happen? Then prepare to accept it. Then proceed to improve on the worst." - Dale Carnegie 1) Relevance
2) Importance
3) Urgency 1) Relevance
2) Importance
3) Urgency -Persuasive and urgent

-Recommendations must be taken seriously Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the National University of Singapore (NUS) internal shuttle bus service. Purpose: To examine the feasibility of starting cooking lessons for NUS students. Purpose: To examine Beads Cafe workers' least productive periods
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