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Authenticity & Output: Learners as Authors

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Bernd Rueschoff

on 26 March 2018

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Transcript of Authenticity & Output: Learners as Authors

The output hypothesis claims that …
“… [t]he activity of producing the target language … triggers cognitive processes … – ones in which learners generate linguistic knowledge which is new for them, or which consolidate their current existing knowledge.” (Swain and Lapkin 1995).
… LANGUAGING … is defined

as “speaking, writing, collaborative dialogue, private speech, verbalizing, …” in acts of meaning negotiation/negotiating comprehensible output.

(cf. Swain 2000; 2002; 2006)
Teachers need to create situations that encourage learner/learner, … and group interactions since these provide opportunities not only for more comprehensible input, but also for inter-language modification and comprehensible output.

cf. Shehadeh (1999)

- content
- context
- process
Learners as Authors:

Authenticity & Output
in the
EFL Classroom

Authenticity revisited
The Output Hypothesis
the interaction between students and teachers and is a ‘personal process of engagement’ (van Lier 1996: 128);

the types of task chosen
the social situation of the learning environment
The noticing/triggering function …

... refers to fact that learners – while producing output - realize the linguistics problems they need to manage, leading them to look for adequate options to overcome such gaps.
The hypothesis-testing function …

... suggests that learners make use the method of “trial and error” for testing & modifying their production.
The metalinguistic (reflective function) ...

... participatory output production supports reflection on the language used by the teacher, their partners and the student himself/herself.
Creative Writing: Poetry
Thank you for your attention
Learners need to be given the opportunity to become personally involved as well as to authenticate for themselves materials, tasks, and projected output
Human beings are "sense makers"
(cf. Piaget)
Learning is ...

an active and collaborative process
a process of experimentation
socially negotiated construction of meaning
Hands-on activities are best suited for classroom implementation of constructivism with a focus on fostering critical thinking, strategy building, and competence development
Poetry Alive
Task-Based Learning = TBL
integration of both pedagogic & real world tasks
opportunity for purposeful and authentic meaning negotiation
Exercise =
Form-focused language use
Language “learner”
Task =
Meaning-focused language use
Language “user”
Incidental learning
A task is an activity “where the target language
is used by the learner for a
communicative purpose (goal)
in order to achieve an outcome.”

Jane Willis
Authenticity = ...

... text authenticity
... topic authenticity
... learner authenticity
... learning authenticity
... classroom authenticity

Posters & Texts
See our website

Wikis & WWW-Projets
The best way is to create a curriculum which allows students to solve problems while the teacher monitors and flexibly guides the students , encouraging critical thinking.
....students should be exposed to data, authentic sources, and be encouraged to interact with other students so that they can learn from this experience.

Moving onwards
trying to put the future
behind him
looming up
like a dark shadow
over his pride.
Each step
takes him nearer
to the past.

Bothered but still
walking proudly
going home and thinking
how to feed his family.
Exhausted but still standing
straight knowing that
if he comes home
there will be someone to
take care of him and
this gives him the power
to walk on.

Walking around
as if going to work
without wasting a thought
on his environment.
and busy
wandering around
in the loud job life
in his daily rut
No thoughts!
he carries his bronze torso
on light feet
to his
leaving all his grief
Just good thoughts
on his mind.

Communicative Practice
"Playing" with songs
Digital Tools
Digital Generation
Digital Production Tools
[ Cognitive ] Tools
Online Resources
Social Media
Madeleine: That’s how they are. Because they are richer than everyone else, so they have to insist their dramas are more significant. (Madeleine shakes her head) And my God, all that behaviour in restaurants …

Frances: What behaviour?

Madeleine: Even here, on the island, you hear them in restaurants …
Frances: Who?
Madeleine: Americans.
Frances: Oh.

Madeleine: ‘Does this chicken have skin on it?’ What’s that all about?

Frances: You tell me.

Madeleine: This incredible fear. This terror. What’s the waiter meant to say?

Frances: I don’t know.

Madeleine: ‘No, this chicken never had a skin. This chicken shivered skinless in its coop at night, just pure flesh and feather, terrified it might one day give an American a calorie.’

(Hare 2002: 10) >>> EXAMPLE of PRODUCT

Mobile Learning
Digital Tools afford ...

output orientation
task orientation
competence orientation
self-directed (cooperative)
knowledge construction
Full transcript