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Wolves

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by

Daniel Clark

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Wolves

Wolves
The Need for Apex Predators Within an Ecosystem
Outline
Fear
- How tradition and myth has caused an uneducated judgement on the predators within our ecosystems.
Habitat loss
- What happens when predators are eliminated from an ecosystem.
Reintroduced
- What occurs when predators are reintroduced into a failing ecosystem.
Play Clip
Reintroduced
wolf kills became food for other wildlife

willow began growing in healthier, more abundant patches

beavers started recolonizing the northern range

aspen began showing signs of improvement (Smith 2005)
Tradition
Depictions of a ferocious beast
Little Red Riding Hood
The Three Little pigs
The Boy who Cried Wolf
As children, we are taught stories such as:
Myth
Lycanthropy
most cultures have myths about half human, half wolf creatures
werewolf legends date back to Ancient Greece (Geoffy 2010).
Visual Sources
Information Sources
Geoffy, B. 2010. Lycanthropy: The history of the werewolf. HubPages.
http://geoffyb.hubpages.com/hub/Lycanthropy-A-history-of-the-Werewolf
. Nov. 30, 2013.
Habitat loss
1st Background
- Wolf. Fanpop. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from

http-//images6.fanpop.com/image/photos/32800000/wolf-wolves-32863738-1280-1024.jpg
2nd Background
- Gray wolf howling. Timberwolf HQ. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from

http-//timberwolfhq.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/gray-wolf-howling.jpg
3rd Background
- New White Wolves 25. DeviantArt. Jan. 2013. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from
http-//lakela.deviantart.com/art/New-White-Wolves-25-346027403

1st Quote
- Keeping wolf from door. The Guardian. Dec. 8, 2010. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from

http-//www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/dec/08/keeping-wolf-from-door.jpg
1st Picture
- Pack Lookout. The Almighty Guru. 2001-2003. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from

http-//www.thealmightyguru.com/Pointless/Wolves/Pack-Lookout.jpg
2nd Picture
Yellowstone
Introduction
Introduction
- Coastal Rhapsodies. Sept. 5, 2013. Retrieved Dec. 1, 2013 from

http://coastalrhapsody.wordpress.com/2013/09/05/hidden-meaning-in-the-howl-of-the-wolf/
Audio Clip
- Wolf22.wav. SoundJax. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from

http://soundjax.com/wolf-5.html
- Postcard 1. Blogger. 2010. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2013 from
http-//smspostcard3.blogspot.ca/2009/08/usa-yellowstone-national-park-unesco.html.jpg
3rd Picture
Video Clip
- Strange Days on Planet Earth: Predator. Youtube. May 7, 2011. Retrieved
Dec. 1, 3013 from
http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
Missing vegetation along the Lamar Riverbank (Beschta 1996)
Little aspen regeneration took place since the 1930s (Ripple 1996)
4th Picture
- Screen Capture: Early 1900's. Youtube. May 7, 2011. Retrieved Nov. 17, 2013 from
http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
@ 18:55
5th Picture
- Screen Capture: 1996. Youtube. May 7, 2011. Retrieved Nov. 17, 2013 from
http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
@ 19:10
6th Picture
- Screen Capture: 1954 & 1992. Youtube. May 7, 2011. Retrieved Nov. 17, 2013 from
http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
@ 20:45
Facts
- When the study has been done, what remains?
Primary feeders started to disappear (Predators 2006)
Facts
Results that allow judgement to be cast
removing apex predators changes herbivor and
plant trophic levels

small mammals are found in abundance around wolf dens (Miller et al. 2012)

aspen recovery is occurring because of wolves (Creel et al. 2005)

wolves have started attacking livestock
(Fontain 2005)
Thank You
“We reached the old wolf in time to watch a fierce green fire dying in her eyes. I realized then, and have known ever since, that there was something new to me in those eyes – something known only to her and to the mountain. I was young then, and full of trigger-itch; I thought that because fewer wolves meant more deer, that no wolves would mean hunters’ paradise. But after seeing the green fire die, I sensed that neither the wolf nor the mountain agreed with such a view.”
― Aldo Leopold
2nd Quote
- Gren Fire. Goodreads. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2013 from
http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/search?utf8=✓&q=aldo+leopold&commit=Search
Miller, B. H. Harlow, T. Harlow, D. Biggins, W. Ripple. 2012. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 90(1):70-78.9p.
Creel S., J. Winnie Jr., B. Maxwell, K. Hamlin, M. Creel. 2005. Elk alter habitat selection as an antiprededator response to wolves. Ecology. 86(12):3389-3397.
Smith D. 2008. Strange days on planet earth: Predator. National Geographic.
http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
. Nov. 30, 2013.
Fontaine, J. 2008. Strange days on planet earth: Predator. National Geographic.
http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
. Nov. 30, 2013.
Beschta, B. 2008. Strange days on planet earth: Predator. National Geographic.
http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
. Nov. 30, 2013.
Ripple, B. 2008. Strange days on planet earth: Predator. National Geographic.
http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
. Nov. 30, 2013.
Predator. 2008. Strange days on planet earth. National Geographic.
http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=SIXAytRvDQ0&feature=endscreen
. Nov. 30, 2013.

Predator Documentary:
http://tinyurl.com/WolfCascade
Full transcript