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Copy of Environmental Pollution

Public Health - Midterm Reporting
by

Joseph Raymond Salvador

on 9 May 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Environmental Pollution

Environmental Pollution
SCIENCE 207
Introduction
Reported by:
JOSEPH RAYMOND T. SALVADOR
Man is one of the species who inhabit the earth. We are the only one who has interfered with various natural processes for use of both biological & physical resources to meet his multiple demands, man has polluted all the three realms of the earth-lithosphere, hydrosphere & atmosphere.it is essential for us to know about environment & its pollution.
Environmental Pollution
is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life.
Air Pollution
is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or produce other measured effects on living matter and other materials. Among the major sources of pollution are power and heat generation, the burning of solid wastes, industrial processes, and, especially, transportation.
Other Environmental Pollution
Noise pollution is a composite of sounds generated by human activities ranging from blasting stereo systems to the roar of supersonic transport jets.
Radiation pollution is any form of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation that results from human activities.
Thermal pollution is the discharge of waste heat via energy dissipation into cooling water and subsequently into nearby waterways.
Land Pollution
is the degradation of the Earth's land surface through misuse of the soil by poor agricultural practices, mineral exploitation, industrial waste dumping, and indiscriminate disposal of urban wastes. Stripping soil of its natural fertility by using artificial chemicals like pesticides, insecticides, ripening agents etc. is known as “Soil Pollution”.
Water Pollution
is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical, physical, or biological material that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms living in it. This process ranges from simple addition of dissolved or suspended solids to discharge of the most insidious and persistent toxic pollutants such as pesticides, heavy metals, and non-degradable, bio-accumulative, chemical compounds.
Types Of Pollution
is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life.
Types of Pollution Overview
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Land Pollution
Other Types of Pollution
Noise Pollution
Thermal Pollution
Radioactive Pollution
Six major types of Air Pollutants
Carbon Monoxide Hydrocarbons
Nitrogen Oxides
Particulates
Sulfur dioxide and Photochemical Oxidants
Environmental Effects of Air Pollution
Greenhouse Gases
is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.

Ozone Depletion
describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions.

Acid Precipitation
is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure.
Control Measures
Use of clean Technology
Use of Scrubbers, Electrostatic Precipitator, Desulfurization Process
Energy production and Use
Transportation
Implementation of Laws and Standards
Five Water Contaminants
Organinc Matter
Suspended Solids
Toxic Substances
Tainting Substances
Heated Pollution
Environmental Effects of Air Pollution
Greenhouse Gases
is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.

Ozone Depletion
describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions.

Acid Precipitation
is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure.
Environmental Effects of Air Pollution
Physical Characteristics
This in includes color, odor and siltation.
Oil spills are caused when giant oil tankers and oil rigs which are present in the oceans are damaged by either natural or human errors cause a long-time damage to the ocean as oil is lighter than water and floats on water forming a layer blocking sunlight.

Chemical Characteristics
This includes dissolve oxygen profile that depends on quality and quantity of wastes
Washing clothes near lakes and rivers causes detergents also causes a condition called “Eutrophication” which blocks sunlight from entering inside and reduces oxygen values in the water causing an inhabitable environment.

Biological Composition
Composition of hinger forms of aquatic life (flora and fauna) indicates lesser degree of pollution.
Disposal of Solid Waste
domestic refuse generation that was increasing by 3-4% per year
"throw all" mentality
flies and odor water pollution

Burning and Mining
fly ash problem and destroys fertility of the soil
destroys wildlife harborages and rare vegetation
unburnt materials to be disposed
unusable stripped soil, erosion problems and flooding
siltation of water bodies and mine tailings contribute to water pollution

Application of agricultural pesticides and Disposal of hazardous and toxic waste
persistent pesticides
biological magnification (flood-chain concentration)
toxic chemicals, metals, pesticides, PCB's
biologicals and infectious wastes
flammable, explosives, corrosives, irrtants, radioactive wastes

Natural calamities and Forest activities
floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions
uncontrolled timber-cutting
"slash and burn" practices
Human Effects of Noise Pollution
Noise pollution effects are giving so many negative impacts on the human health. Exposure to the too much noise of noise will lead to aggression, hearing loss, stress, sleep disturbance so much more psychological issues. Researchers have shown that so many people who can afford a new home have started to buy homes in areas where the noise disturbance is very low.
Control Measures
Nuclear devices should be exploded under ground.
Contaminants may be employed to decrease the radioactive emissions.
Production of radio isotopes should be minimize.
Extreme care should be exercised in the disposal of industrial wastes
contained with radionuclide's.
Control Measures
Solid waste management
Controlled mining and forest activities
Toxic and hazardous waste management
Pestecides regulatory measures
Air pollution control
Control Measures
Waste treatment prior to disposal of liquid waste from domestic and ind. sources
Strict implementation of laws, parameters of local waster standards
Public education and information on the protection and conservation of water ways
Environmental Contributors
Detrimental Effects to the
Human and Environment
Environmental Effects of Radiation Pollution
Environmental Effects of Thermal Pollution
Any amount of radiation may cause cancer, especially in sensitive individuals. Or, in other words, any exposure to radiation may cause some risk. Thus, it is always safer to minimize as much as possible the exposure to radiation. Cancer due to radiation exposure at lower doses usually develops years after the actual exposure.
In water, thermal pollution (making the water warmer) can change the species of fish present in the water and other organisms both because of the heat and the decreased oxygen in the water (warm water dissolves less oxygen).
In air, thermal pollution is limited to the heat island effect caused by cites. Cities trap and radiate more heat than forests and fields. The warmer air makes thermal currents in the air which can act as a barrier to the normal wind patterns.
In soil, thermal pollution is limited to the impact of climate on the types of plants that can grow and the reduction of areas which have permafrost.
Control Measures
The noise pollution can be controlled at the source of generation itself
by employing techniques.
Installation of barriers between noise source and receiver can attenuate the noise levels.
Prescribe noise level of 90 dBA for more than 8 hr continuous exposure is prohibited.
Control Measures
man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation
cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer
cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled for domesticor industrial heating purposes.
BIOSPHERE
POLLUTION
AIR
NOISE,
THERMAL and
RADIATION
LAND
WATER
END.
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