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Transcript of Disabilities
Eman, Meaghan, Katie, Amina, Ashley & Julie
*Mobility Device Users
Americans with Disabilities Act- 1990
-Facts About the Americans with Disabilities Act. http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-ada.cfm
-Americans with Disabilties Act. http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/hq9805.html
- Consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act. http://www.nber.org/digest/dec98/w6670.html
-Disability Rights. http://www.aapd.com/what-powers-us/disability-rights/
-Past and Present Perceptions Towards Disability: A Historical Perspective. http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/3197/3068
-Mossman, Mark. "Visible Disability in the College Classroom." JSTOR. College English, July 2002. Web. 18 Nov. 2014.
-Services for Students with Disabilities Annual Report, 2013-2014. www.ssd.umic.edu
- Major Legislation for the Disabled. http://www.jpkf.org/jpkf-policy-guide/docs/part1.pdf
-A Brief History of Disability Rights Legislation in the United States. http://www.udeducation.org/resources/61.html http://
-Disability Statistics www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/acs.cfm?statistic=3
-Disabled people have sex lives. Get over it. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/aug/23/disabled-people-sex-lives-equality
-Women with Disabilities: Health, Reproduction, and Sexuality https://ctools.umich.edu/access/content/group/85626827-c35c-4f9b-a7cb-24eb8c8d082b/Lecture%20Outlines%20and%20Notes/Week%2008%20Disability/Additional%20Readings_Media/Hershey.pdf
-Enacted in 1990
-Prohibits discrimination based on diability
-Employers, Public Accommodations
-Mental & Physical Health Conditions
-Prohibits discrimination of qualified applicants and employees with disabilities
-Must make accommodations to the disability
-Cannot ask about the disability during hiring process, only job skills
-Restaurants, hotels, doctor's offices, museums, libraries, parks
-Policy, practice, procedure
-New accessible buildings
-Accessible buses, bus stations
-No effect on disabled worker's incomes
-Employment rates decline-
-Midsized companies with biggest decrease
-Small companies exempt, large companies can afford it
-No effect on job loss, only reduced hiring
On a piece of paper, write down everything you have done today since you woke up
Stepped out of bed
Walked to bathroom
Went in Shower
Walked downstairs, left house
Walked .5 miles to Mason Hall
everything you would not be possible if you were in a wheelchair
ex: ride your bike
everything you would have to do differently
ex: making breakfast, get on the bus
Changing Views on Disability
Disabled = Asexual
Abusing the system
“Some people are walking around with full use of their bodies and they're more paralyzed than I am” -Christopher Reeves
Something to "cure"
"You're so successful for a handicapped person!"
On Our Campus
Services for Students with Disabilities
Established in Feb. 1974
Registration is growing, but resources are being cut
5% of undergrad is registered
2,242 in 2013-14
Could be as high as 10%
Types of Disabilities
Learning Disabilities 43%
Mental Health Conditions 23.8%
Chronic Health Conditions 13.2%
Temporary Disabilities 7.8%
Mobility Impairments 1.6%
for College Students
Tight space in labs, classrooms, libraries
Fear of stigma
What Can Be Done?
classes can be moved into accessible classrooms
placement into most accessible dorms
In the 1880's
Eugenics movement - people with disabilities cannot move into the US, marry, or have children.
led to the institutionalization and forced sterilization of disabled adults and children
The Beginning of the 20th Century
In the beginning institutionalization and sterilization was normal.
After WW1, things began to change - vets came home wounded and something needed to change.
The Smith-Hughes Act established the Federal-State Program in vocational education and created a Federal Board of Vocational Education with the authority and responsibility for vocational rehabilitation of disabled veterans.
The Smith-Sears Veterans Rehabilitation Act (also referred to as the Soldier's Rehabilitation Act) expanded the role of the Federal Board of Vocational Education to provide services for vocational rehabilitation of veterans disabled during World War I.
In 1920 the Smith-Fess Act (referred to as the Civilian Rehabilitation Act) began the rehabilitation program for all Americans with disabilities patterned after the Soldiers Rehabilitation Act. It established the Federal-State program in rehabilitation and provided funds to states for primarily vocational services, including vocational guidance, training, occupational adjustment, prosthetics, and placement services.
The Early 1900's
Though there was help for vets, not much changed.
There was still a sterilization process for people
with disabilities that passed Buck vs. Bell in 1927. It passed in 27 states.
Advances of the 40's
This is when things started to get real:
1943 LaFollette-Barden Vocational Rehabilitation Act
1944 Howard Rusk began a rehabilitation program for disabled airmen at the U.S. Army Air Force Convalescent Center.
1946 Hill-Burton Act
National Mental Health Foundation was founded by conscientious objectors who served as attendants at state mental institutions rather than in the war.
President Truman’s National Employ the Physically Handicapped Week was an impetus for disability rights advocacy activities.
1947 Paralyzed Veterans of America organized and took a leading role in advocating for disability rights.
The 50's with Incremental Process:
1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
The Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program was created in 1956 for disabled workers ages 50-64. In 1958 it was extended to dependents of disabled workers. In 1960 age restrictions were lifted
Social Security and Vocational Rehabilitation amendments expanded
Legislation Advancements of the 60's
The 1960s marked the beginning of the Disabilities Rights Movement
The 1964 Civil Rights Act
1965 Medicare and Medicaid were established through passage of the Social Security Amendments of 1965
1965 Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Amendments
The 1968 Architectural Barriers Act
Disabilities in the 70's:
Urban Mass Transit Act
The Developmental Disabilities (DD) Services and Facilities Construction Amendments were passed
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
Social Security Amendments of 1972
1973 the Rehabilitation Act
1975 the Education of All Handicapped Children Act a.k.a the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
During the 1970s several disability rights organizations formed, including the National Center for Law and the Handicapped, Disability Rights Center, the American Disabled for Public Transit (ADAPT) and the National Center for Law and the Deaf.
Legislation in the 80's:
1980 Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act
Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984
1986 the Employment Opportunities for Disabled Americans Act
Air Carrier Access Act
1988 the Civil Rights Restoration Act
1988 the Fair Housing Amendments Act
Technology-Related Assistance Act for Individuals with Disabilities
What Happens in the 90's?
Into the 21st Century:
Americans with Disabilities Act.
The Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act, signed by President Bush on September 25, 2008
Obama- 2010- Revised ADA Regulations
Major Disability Legislation before ADA
Rehabilitation Acts (1973)
It was the first civil rights legislation in the United States designed to protect individuals with disabilities from discrimination based on their disability status.
"No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States... shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." (Section 501)
Programs receiving federal funds may not discriminate against those with disabilities based on their disability status. All government agencies, federally-funded projects, K-12 schools, post-secondary entities (state colleges, universities, and vocational training schools) fall into this category.
What is the effect of able-bodied persons idealizing “normal” actions of those with visible disabilities?
How does having an avenue for claiming “normality” allow those who are disabled to escape discrimination and exclusion?
What is the Mossoman's ultimate point?
How can the University of Michigan improve to allow students with disabilities to “claim power, equality, and volition?”
Social Security Act (1935)
Part of the New Deal by FDR
Established a system of welfare for
old-age benefits for workers, benefits
for victims of industrial accidents,
unemployment insurance, aid for
dependent mothers and children,
the blind, and the physically handicapped.
Medicare/ Medicaid, Disability Insurance
Trust Fund, Early and Periodic screening
~ 10.8 percent of non-institutionalized persons aged 21 to 64 years with a disability actively looking for work
That's 1,353,800 out of 12,562,000 individuals
-70% of those polled in a survey by the Observer said they would not consider having sex with someone with a physical disability
-Although it can be caused by one, disability itself is not an illness.
An example from Britain, but very much a reality in America as well.