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Biology Big Picture

Review for CST test

Yami Orihuela

on 11 May 2012

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Transcript of Biology Big Picture

Biology Study of Life Grows Mitosis Creates identical diploid cells
Four Phases PMAT
Happens throughtout most of the body Reproduces Made of Cells Uses Chemicals Interacts with Others Changes over Time Protects itself Sends Messages Determined by Genes Functions because of Proteins Ecology Evolution Protein Synthesis Immune system Genetics Biochemistry Nervous System Meiosis Prokaryote & Eukaryote Creates different haploid cells, 8 phases PMAT I & PMAT II
Random Chromosome segregation
Only occurs in sex organs for gamete production (sperm & egg cells)
Different in Males vs. Females, all eggs have X, 1/2 sperm have X or Y no nucleus
bacteria has nucleus
protists, fungi, plants and animals
has organelles CHONPS
Enzymes Three Lines of Defense Three Easy Steps
1. Transcription- DNA is written into RNA in the nucleus
2. RNA Processing- RNA is edited and protected before it leaves the nucleus
3. Translation- mRNA is read at the ribosome and tRNAs bring in the correct amino acids to make a protein
A Mutation such as a letter switch could change the protein
A Mutation such as adding or removing a base causes a bigger change in the protein. Monohybrid Cross- cross looking at one trait
Phenotype- physical characteristic ex. Tall
Genotype- pair of genes that determine trait ex. Tt
Dominant- Trait shows itself over another. ex. T
Recessive- Trait is hidden when with a dominant ex. t
Sex-linked traits- on X chromosome, passed from mother to son, shown in boys more than girls
Recesive Genes that cause disease are passed on by healthy carriers or heterozygotes ex. Aa Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
Evidences- Fossils, Similar structures & embryos, DNA comparisons, microevolution.
Adaptaions- anything, structure, behavior, physiology that allows you to survive in your environment.
Variation/Diversity= better survival for a species.
New variations come from mutations.
Regular variation comes from meiosis and sexual reproduciton (shuffles our genes)
Genetic drift changes a population when it becomes small or isolated Population- same species living in same area
Community- differenet species living in same area
Ecosystem- living and non-living things in an area
Food Chains and Webs show the direction of energy flow, always less energy available as you move up.
Succession- an ecosystem growing and maturing over time Important organelles and their jobs Ribosome- Proetien Factory- uses mRNA message and tRNAs to make proteins
Mitochondria- Does Cellular Respiration- provides cell with ATP energy by breaking down sugar
Endoplasmic Reticulum- Transports products like proteins
Chloroplast- Does Photosynthesis-uses light, H20 & CO2 to make Glucose (C6H12O6)
Nucleus- Contains the Chromosomes (gene packages) which are the instructions for the cell
Golgi Apparatus- Packages proetins for transport Plant Cells covered with wall and membrane
Animal Cells covered with cell membrane
The membrane is a lipid bylayer that is
Stuff can move accross the cell membrane by...
Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Stuff can also get in through endocytosis or leave through exocytosis. Carbohydrates- used for energy, made of sugars (C & H2O), mono-,di- & poly- saccharides.
Lipids- used for energy storage and insulation, made of long carbon chains
Proteins- used as structure in the body and as enzymes, made of amino acids from DNA code
Nucleic Acids- used as code- DNA & RNA Made of nucleotides- sugar, phosphate & base (ATGC) Are proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy.
Their shape is specific to the reaction they catalyze.
They are affected by temperature & pH Cells in you are different because they USE different genes to make differnet proteins, not because they have different genes!!
Each Protein is different because of how many and which amino acids it has in order! In DNA A-T and G-C. for replication
In RMA A-U and G-C for transcription Genetic Engineering- new combinations of genes from different organisms can be created <--affected by births, deaths, and migration <--Chemicals such as Water, Carbon, and Nitorgen cycle through the Ecosystems Those well adapted to their environment will survive and reproduce, Passing on their good genes. "Survival of the Fittest" Recieves info from senses Processes info, brain and spinal cord Sends out info, to muslces and glands Endocrine System Made up of glands and hormones
Regulates temperature, growth, cycles The signal is electrical along cell then chemical inbetween cells Made up of Neurons
Three Types- Sensory, Inter & Motor
A signal is called an Action Potential Use feedback loops 1. Block- non-specific, stops stuff from getting in. Includes skin, mucuous, hair, etc.
2. Non-specific attacks- Inflamation, Macropahges, try to get rid of invaders right away.
3. Specific Attacks- Immunity, B cells patrol liquid parts of your body, use antibodies & T cells which destroy infected cells A vaccine introduces the immune system to a pathogen so it learns and remebers how to fight it off Protects against bacteria and viruses living prokaryotic cells, can cause disease and can be killed with antibiotics non-living structures made of protein and DNA or RNA, infect and take over the victoms cells. HIV virus causes AIDS, specifically attacks helper T cells and destroys the Immune system. Is organized with Systems in a multicellular organism Respiratory System
Digestive System
Circulatory System
Excretory System exchanges Carbon Dioxide for Oxygen in the lungs breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and disposes of solid waste Moves blood throughout body, delivering Oxygen and Nutrients, Picking up Carbon Dioxide and Waste Filters blood in the Kidneys removing all Nitrogen waste for disposal in Urine.
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