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Issac Newton

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Boon Cai

on 31 October 2014

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Transcript of Issac Newton

- Newton received his bachelor's degree at Cambridge without honors or distinction.
- due to the Plague (1665) he moves back temporarily to Woolsthorpe.
- within 18 months, he made a series of original contributions to science.
- infinitesimal calculus
- theory of light and color
- planetary motion


1650
1670
1727
1643
1680
Issac Newton
Early Childhood
- prolonged separation from his mother, and his unrivaled hatred of his stepfather

- he verged on emotional collapse, occasionally falling into violent and vindictive attacks against friend and foe alike.
Education
Education
Discovery/Invention
Newton Contribution
Published The Principia (Philosophiae Naturalis Principia)
- Book I of the Principia, 1687
-All of physics and science except energy

- Book II of the Principia
- planets carried by fluid vortices

- Book III the System of the World
- derivation of gravity
- implications of orbital and rotating bodies
Dispute
Death
Conclusion
Sir Isaac Newton
(1643-1727)
- born at Woolthorpe, Lincolnshire, England
- an English physicist and mathematician.
- formulated the laws of motion
and universal gravitation
-best known on work of gravity
Failure
Success
- He never did particularly well in school
- When put in charge of running the family farm, he failed miserably
- Graduated from Cambridge without honors or distinction
- Published his methods/notations on calculus only after Leibniz had published it.
- Abused with power as the President of the Royal Society.
- Isolated, detached and unemotional.
Became a scholar best known for his physics and maths who is recognized as one of the most influential scientists

- Published various books (Principia)
- Formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation
- Created the ever first practical reflecting telescope
- Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge
- Master of the Royal Mint
- President of the Royal Society
- Even after death, his fame still grows
Dispute
Robert Hooke criticized some of Newton's ideas on over the nature of lights
- this happens when he presented his first paper on the nature of light in February of 1672

Hooke accused Newton of Plagiarism on the theory of light from his journal, Micrographia (not true)

The war of gravitation between Newton and Hooke
- Hooke had a good theory but weak in math
- Hooke claimed that Newton would not have come up
with inverse square law

- Gottfried Leibniz, German mathematician began publishing his methods (calculus) in 1684
- Newton published in 1704
Publication
- Modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed calculus independently, with very different notations

ẋ ẍ



Co-discoverer
Newton's notation
Leibniz's Notation
Contribution to the UK's Scientific Revolution
Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, James Watt and Isaac Newton were the main pillars of the Scientific Revolution in the UK.
His Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) set science on its modern course
The three universal laws of motion contributed to many advances during the later Industrial Revolution in the UK, followed by other European countries.
- Newton was the President of the Royal Society (1703)

- The Royal Society set up a committee to address the dispute

- The committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events

- Newton enlisted younger men to fight his war of words
- Leibniz saw some of Newton's papers on the subject before 1675

- Obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers

- It ended with charges of dishonesty and outright plagiarism
Death (due to bladder Stone)
-Age of 80 he suffered from incontinence, due to his weakness in the bladder. The pain from his bladder stones grew worse
On March 19, 1727, blacked out, never to regain consciousness
dead on March 20, 1727
Death (due to bladder Stone)
-In year 1979, Spargo and Pounds analyzed samples of his hair.
- Found that there were mercury content on all his hair.
- These findings concluded that Newton's ‘nervous breakdown’ was due principally to mercury poisoning and also resulting to his death.
- Dec/1692 to Jan/1693, conducted alchemical experiments, where heating of metal and mercury and also tasting of mercury were needed. Therefore risking himself to expose in cumulative mercury poisoning by
inhaling
consuming
direct ingestion through the skin from handling material
Death (Mercury posioning)
- Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy
- He dominated the landscape of science without rival
- Newton was taken from school to fulfill his birthright as a farmer.

- He failed in farming, and returned to King's School again.
- He left Woolsthorpe (hometown) for Trinity College, Cambridge

- Newton entered a new world; turning point in Newton's life
3 Laws of Motion
- the law of inertia
- A stationary body will stay stationary unless an external force is applied to it
- newton 2nd law (f=ma)
- a change in motion proportional to force applied

- law of reciprocal action (action/reaction)
- every action comes with an equal and opposite force

-These laws helped explain not only elliptical planetary orbits but nearly every other motion in the universe
-planets are kept in orbit by the pull of the sun’s gravity
-the moon revolves around Earth and the moons of Jupiter revolve around it

Optics
It was his initial topic as a professor
-Invented the first practical reflecting telescope (1668)
-first major public scientific achievement
- theory of light and colour
-prism refracts white light into spectrum of different colour
-could be recomposed into white light using len and a second prism
Law of Gravitational force
- the earth have bigger mass therefore pulls object
towards it.

Newton brilliant insight
-orbit of the Moon about the Earth is the consequence of the gravitational force because the acceleration due to gravity could change the velocity of the Moon in just such a way that it followed an orbit around the earth.

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