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"Animal Farm," Chapter 1

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Ashley Mercer

on 25 January 2016

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Transcript of "Animal Farm," Chapter 1

"Animal Farm," George Orwell
Old Major's Speech
2 reasons why it is important

1: persuasive elements
2: Communist ideology that will be the basis for a major theme of the novel (will later become corrupted)

Man = personifying the enemy, naming the enemy

Man = Capitalist business owners

Old Major is an allegory for Karl Marx/Lenin - the "founders" of Soviet communism.

Old Major demonstrates his intelligence and power as he persuades the rest of the animals on the farm to follow his ideology (like Lenin).
Beasts of England
Unites the animals in the beginning of the book, an anthem as well as a battle cry for rebellion. It is a symbol of change for the animals.

“Bright will shine the fields of England, purer shall its waters be, sweeter yet shall blow breezes on the day that sets us free.”

The animals are singing a song of freedom, the animals are expecting their desire to leave the dictatorship of Mr. Jones and start a commune.

It is similar to the anthem of the USSR.
"Animal Farm", Chapter 6:
Corrupting the Commandments

Animal Farm, Chapter 1:
Linking to Ideology
L.o. to link Old Major's speech and Beasts of England anthem to Communist ideology

All (C): make some connections between Ch.1 and Communist ideology
Most (B): explore links between speech/anthem and Communist ideology
Some (A): link using specific, detailed comparisons to Communist ideology
"Animal Farm", Chapter 6: Continued
The Power of Language: Propaganda in Action
Squealer is used to explain Napoleon's actions.

"Animal Farm", Characterisation in Chapter 1-2
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism


Communism Idealised
In an ideal Communist revolution all the "rulers" of the people – kings (politics), churches (religion), capitalists (economy) - are overthrown.

As everyone now works together, war is a thing of the past – armies are not needed. Sharing means no police are needed. Everything is provided by the people – so money becomes a thing of the past.

All human activity goes towards benefiting each other – allowing all to live their lives to the full.
"Animal Farm", Chapter 5 continued
L.O. to apply techniques of analysis to past paper
"Animal Farm", Chapter 3
"Animal Farm", Chapter 4
L.o. to explore author's use of language to reflect corruption and deceit
"Animal Farm", Chapter 8: Anthems
The Power of Language
L.O. to examine progression of themes
Animal Farm, Ch. 8: Themes
As Napoleon rises to power a new social and political structure emerges on the farm. This creates a deliberate inequality between groups of animals on the farm.
"Animal Farm", Chapter 10:
The Cyclical Nature of Power and Dictatorship

L.O. to analyse Animal Farm as a microcosm of the larger world
Match up the term with the definition.
What is government?
Anarchy

Autonomy

Democracy

Dictatorship

Totalitarian

A single party without opposition rules.

A period of rule by a ruler with absolute power.

A situation where there is a total lack of organisation or control.

A form of government in which power is invested in the people as a whole.

Political independence and self government.
1. What form of government was the farm under Farmer Jones?
2. After the expulsion of Jones, what were the forms of government?
3. What form of government is it under Napoleon’s rule?

Animal Farm, Chapter 10
L.O. to finish text and review events
1. Which of the animals alive before the Rebellion were still alive in this chapter?
2. List the successes of the farm mentioned in this chapter.
3. What did Squealer do with the sheep?
4. What words replaced the Seven Commandments on the end of the barn?
5. Describe the new privileges of the pigs.
6. Describe the changes Napoleon outlined in his speech to his guests and the new name of the farm.
Karl Marx
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
Old Major
Previous Key Words:

Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism

This is what happens in an
IDEAL
situation.
=
Animal Farm Ch 1-2
L.O. to review Old Major's speech and analyse constructions of "Animalism"
Previous Key Words:

Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism

Communism:

15 minute starter
1. Read the extract from Old Major’s speech.

2. Highlight or underline all the examples of repetition, rhetorical questions and imperatives.

imperative: pertaining to the verb used in commands, etc., as in Listen! Go!

Which is the most persuasive sentence in the speech and why?
What does it suggest about all the other animals?
a theory or system of social organization in which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to their ability and needs, envisioned by Karl Marx.
The Principles of Animalism
Animalism was always doomed to failure.

Find evidence in Ch 2 which suggests this statement is true and that the principles of Animalism have already been undermined.

Refer to:
The principles of Animalism (what are they called again)?
Which principles are being undermined?
Who or what is undermining the principles of Animalism and why?

The Seven Commandments
Extension Task:
Create a venn diagram comparing Napoleon and Snowball in Ch 2.
Animalism
:
The pigs Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer adapt Old Major's ideas into "a complete system of thought", which they formally name Animalism, an allegoric reference to Communism.
L.O. analysing author's use of language to shape meaning
the produce of labour would be our own
wants the animals to live with comfort and dignity
their lives eventually become "miserable and labourious"
they are slaughtered with hideous cruelty at the order of Napoleon
Boxer is forced to work until the last atom of his strength
Strengths
Weaknesses
(Predicts the future of the animals)
Initial Impression of Characters
Benjamin
Squealer
Boxer
Key words/Description of character
L.O. to analyse development of characters and themes
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments:
"unalterable laws" set in place by the pigs, based on the philosophies of Old Major, references the Judeo-Christian commandments
Chapter 3 challenges one of the seven commandments. Which commandment is being challenged and what is the point?
Moses
Theme: Corruption
Character Development
Building on the character grid from yesterday, add the quotations below to the correct character. Analayse their meaning.
preserve our health
obstinate
tremendous muscles
could read as well as any pig
the most active in debates
superior knowledge
clever
could not get beyond the letter D
it is for your sake we drink the milk
Benjamin
Add the following character to your grid:
"Animal Farm", Chapter 3
L.O. analyse creation of republic and plot timeline of events
Hoof and Horn

Hammer and Sickle
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn:
green background represents the fields of England and its white hoof and horn symbolizes the animals unity and freedom. A play on the flag of the Soviet Union.
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Old Major's dream
"Rebellion!"
Beasts of England
The unexpected rebellion
Animalism
Seven Commandments

Hoof and Horn
Napoleon and Snowball disagree
Special privileges for pigs

1 Answer all parts of the question.

(a) From the extract, what do you discover about the character of Major?
Use evidence from the extract to support your answer.
(8)
(b) Comment on how language is used to create an impression of Man in the extract.
Use examples of the writer’s language from the extract.
(10)
(c) Explore the significance of the dream in the extract.
Use evidence from the extract to support your answer.
(10)
(d) Explore the significance of dreams in one other part of the novel.
Use examples of the writer’s language to support your answer.
(12)
(Total for Question 1 = 40 marks)
January 2012, English Literature
Character
Language
Theme
Linking Theme
Past Papers
Write the first question in your note book.
Respond using the evidence from the passage we identified.
‘I have little more to say. I merely repeat, remember always your duty of enmity towards
Man
and all his ways.

Whatever goes upon two legs, is an enemy. Whatever goes upon
four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
And remember also that in fighting against Man, we
must not come to resemble him. Even when you have conquered him, do not adopt his
vices.
No animal must ever live in a house, or sleep in a bed, or wear clothes, or drink
alcohol, or smoke tobacco, or touch money, or engage in trade
. All the habits of Man are
evil. And, above all, no animal must ever tyrannize over his own kind.
Weak or strong,
clever or simple, we are all brothers.
No animal must ever kill any other animal.
All
animals are equal.

‘And now, comrades, I will tell you about my dream of last night. I cannot describe that
dream to you. It was a dream of the earth as it will be when Man has vanished. But it
reminded me of something that I had long forgotten. Many years ago, when I was a little
pig, my mother and the other sows used to sing an old song of which they knew only the
tune and the first three words. I had known that tune in my infancy, but it had long since
passed out of my mind. Last night, however, it came back to me in my dream. And what
is more, the words of the song also came back—words, I am certain, which were sung by
the animals of long ago and have been lost to memory for generations. I will sing you
that song now, comrades. I am old and my voice is hoarse, but when I have taught you
the tune, you can sing it better for yourselves. It is called “Beasts of England”.’
January 2012 Extract
Personification of the enemy
Maxim, or principle
Imperatives, commands
Repetition
Juxtaposition
Old Major's dream
"Rebellion!"
Beasts of England
The unexpected Rebellion
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Napoleon and Snowball disagree
Special privileges for pigs
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Neighbouring farms
Spreading rebellion
Battle of the Cowshed
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Frederick of Pinchfield Farm
=
Stalin
Hitler
Napoleon
=
Pilkington of Foxwood Farm
L.O. to analyse historical allegories
The Battle of the Cowshed:
the first defense of Animal Farm against invading humans, extends allegory of Russian Revolution to specific events, October Revolution
=
+
Churchill
Karl Marx
Lenin
Old Major
Communism
Animalism
Trotsky
Snowball
=
Farmer Jones
Tsar Nicholas II
=
=
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Battle of the Cowshed
Bourgeoisie

Middle/Upper class that owns wealth and businesses, flees Russia in the midst of the Communist upheaval
Old Major's dream
"Rebellion!"
Beasts of England
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
The unexpected Rebellion
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Napoleon and Snowball disagree
Special privileges for pigs
Neighbouring farms
Spreading rebellion
Battle of the Cowshed
Trouble with Mollie
The Windmill
9 Enormous Dogs
"Animal Farm", Chapter 5
L.O. to develop interpretation of novel's meaning and characters
Mollie
Bourgeoisie
Mollie disappears
Represents decline of the Russian middle/upper classes
=
=
Clash!
5 Year Plan
Stalin
Trotsky
Answer all parts of the question.

1. From the extract, what do you discover about the character of Mollie?
Use evidence from the extract to support your answer.
(8)

2. Comment on the effect of language used to describe the character of Clover in the extract.
Use examples of the writer's language from the extract.
(10)

3. Explore the significance of deception in the extract.
Use evidence from the extract to support your answer.
(10)
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Battle of the Cowshed
Bourgeoisie
Dictatorship
government or a social situation where one individual, the dictator, makes all the rules and decisions without input from anyone else
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Neighbouring farms
Spreading rebellion
Battle of the Cowshed
Trouble with Mollie
The Windmill
9 Enormous Dogs
L.O. analyse main characters and progression of themes
5 Year Plan
"No one believes more firmly than Comrade Napoleon that all animals are equal."
"He would only be too happy to let you make decisions for yourselves. But sometimes you might make the wrong decisions ... and then where should we be?"
How do the two quotes above,
and other quotes from Chapter 5
, demonstrate the emerging themes of:

Ignorance
The power of language (Propaganda)
Corruption
Inequality
Stalin
Napoleon
Tactics, friends. Tactics!
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Battle of the Cowshed
Bourgeoisie
Dictatorship
L.O. to demonstrate progression of and explore theme of corruption
Propaganda
information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Longer working week
Trading with humans
Tragedy of the windmill
Trouble with Mollie
The Windmill
9 enormous dogs
Squealer:
Master of Propaganda
"Surely, you wouldn't want Jones to come back?"
"Animal Farm", Chapter 7: Developing Dictatorship
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Battle of the Cowshed
Bourgeoisie
Dictatorship
Propaganda
Famine
Extreme lack of food
L.O. to analyse characterisation of Napoleon as Leader and dictator
Trouble with Mollie
The Windmill
9 enormous dogs
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Longer working week
Trading with humans
Tragedy of the windmill
Famine
Fooling the outside world
Crimes against the farm
Comrade Napoleon, Leader
Stalin
"... and the air was heavy with blood, which had been unknown there since the expulsion of Jones."
KGB
The intelligence and internal security agency of the former Soviet Union.
How has Napoleon cemented his dictatorship?
What tactics has he used?
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Battle of the Cowshed
Bourgeoisie
Dictatorship
Propaganda
Famine
KGB
Longer working week
Trading with humans
Tragedy of the windmill
Famine
Fooling the outside world
Crimes against the farm
The Cult of Napoleon
Frederick's betrayal
The Battle of the Windmill
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Cult of Personality
when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealised, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
"Napoleon was now never spoken of simply as 'Napoleon.' He was always referred to in formal style as 'our Leader, Comrade Napoleon', and the pigs liked to invent for him such titles as Father of All Animals, Terror of Mankind, Protector of the Sheepfold, Ducklings' Friend, and the like... The general feeling on the farm was expressed in a poem entitled 'Comrade Napoleon', which was composed by Minimus..."
Today we are learning how to analyse the Animal Farm questions on the literature paper.
In Ch 7 "Beasts of England" is replaced with "Animal Farm", a new anthem composed by Minimus the poet.
(It is noted that it wasn't entirely as good as "Beasts of England")
Beasts of England, Beasts of Ireland,
Beasts of every land and clime,
Hearken to my joyful tidings
Of the Golden future time.
... (Ch 1, pg 8)
Animal Farm, Animal Farm,
Never through me shall thou come to harm!
(Ch 7, pg 65)
In Ch 8, this new anthem is again replaced by "Comrade Napoleon" another anthem composed by Minimus.
Friend of fatherless!
Fountain of happiness!
Lord of the swill-bucket!
Oh, how my soul is on
Fire when I gaze at thy
Calm and commanding eye,
Like the sun in the sky,
Comrade Napoleon!
... (Ch 8, pg 68)

"Comrade Napoleon" is painted on the wall of the big barn opposite the Seven Commandments, and surrounded by a large portrait of Napoleon painted by Squealer in white paint.
Friend of the fatherless!
Fountain of happiness!
Lord of the swill-bucket!
Oh, how my soul is on
Fire when I gaze at thy
Calm and commanding eye,
Like the sun in the sky,
Comrade Napoleon!

Thou art the giver of
All that thy creatures love,
Full belly twice a day, clean straw to roll upon;
Every beast great or small
Sleeps at peace in his stall,
Thou watchest over all,
Comrade Napoleon!

Had I a sucking pig,
Ere he had grown as big
Even as a pint bottle or as a rolling pin,
He should have learned to be
Faithful and true to thee,
Yes, his first squeal should be
"Comrade Napoleon!"
Annotate poem for:
rhyme scheme
rhythm
poetic devices


How does the poem demonstrate Napoleon's new position as dictator on the farm?
How do the metaphors and similes support this interpretation?
Power of Language
(Propaganda)
Corruption
Inequality
Dreams
Ignorance
There were times when it seemed to the animals that they worked longer hours and fed no better than they had done in Jones's day. On Sunday mornings Squealer, holding down a long strip of paper with his trotter, would read out to them lists of figures proving that the production of every class of foodstuff had increased by two hundred per cent, three hundred per cent, or five hundred per cent, as the case might be. The animals saw no reason to disbelieve him, especially as they could no longer remember very clearly what conditions had been like before the Rebellion. All the same, there were days when they felt that they would sooner have had less figures and more food.

Napoleon was now never spoken of simply as "Napoleon." He was always referred to in formal style as "our Leader, Comrade Napoleon," and the pigs liked to invent for him such titles as Father of All Animals, Terror of Mankind, Protector of the Sheep-fold, Ducklings' Friend, and the like. In his speeches, Squealer would talk with the tears rolling down his cheeks of Napoleon's wisdom, the goodness of his heart, and the deep love he bore to all animals everywhere, even and especially the unhappy animals who still lived in ignorance and slavery on other farms.
pg. 66-67
What purpose is served by the production figures Squealer reads to the animals?
How is Napoleon becoming more and more like a typical dictator?
Describe the sale of lumber. How does Napoleon outwit himself?
Why are the animals so easily fooled? Especially by Squealer?
Activity
Summary Questions
Create a class diagram, portraying how the animals have now divided themselves into classes.
"Tactics, comrades. Tactics!"
Important Themes!
"Animal Farm", Ch. 9:
Napoleon's Established Dictatorship
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Battle of the Cowshed
Bourgeoisie
Dictatorship
Propaganda
Famine
KGB
Cult of Personality
Dystopia
an imagined place or state in which everything is unpleasant or bad, typically a totalitarian or environmentally degraded one.
L.O. to explore the progression of Animal Farm from utopia to dystopia
Utopia
an imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect.
After reading Ch. 9
How far do you agree ...
It was Boxer that helped contribute to Napoleon's rise to power
Ch 7
Ch 8
Ch 9
The Cult of Napoleon
Frederick's betrayal
The Battle of the Windmill
500 percent better
The return of Moses
Boxer's ailing health
“The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again: but already it was impossible to say which was which.”

Cyclical
occurring in cycles; recurrent.
Previous Key Words:
George Orwell
Political Satire
Fable
Allegory
Anthropomorphism
Communism
Animalism
Seven Commandments
Hoof and Horn
Battle of the Cowshed
Bourgeoisie
Dictatorship
Propaganda
Famine
KGB
Cult of Personality
Utopia
Dystopia
Microcosm
a community, place, or situation regarded as encapsulating in miniature the characteristics of something much larger.
Pre 1917 Tsar Nicolas II ruled Russia. The ruling class was rich and powerful whilst the majority of the population were poor, peasant workers.

Stalin was the supreme ruler of the Soviet Union for a quarter of a century. His regime of terror caused the death and suffering of tens of millions, but he also oversaw the war machine that played a key role in the defeat of Nazism.
L.O. to review Old Major's speech and analyse constructions of "Animalism"
Mollie
Animalism
:
The pigs Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer adapt Old Major's ideas into "a complete system of thought", which they formally name Animalism, an allegoric reference to Communism.
Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (Russian: Комите́т госуда́рственной безопа́сности (КГБ)
"Animal Farm:, Ch. 9:
The farm under Napoleon

L.O. to explore types of government and link to progression of dictatorship on Animal Farm
Learning Pit Stop
L.O. to review feedback and update target sheet
Using the marking feedback in your exercise book, collate the + signs into a list of positive comments.

What have you done well?
Using the marking feedback in your exercise book, collate the --> signs into a list of targets.

Update your target sheet.
"Animal Farm", Exploring Theme
L.O. to identify and tracing development of themes
Past themes:
control
ignorance
dishonesty
dreams
deception
The Seven Commandments
Find an example in the beginning, middle and end of the text for each theme.
"Animal Farm", Revising for the Exam
L.O. to review key characters, language and themes
The extracts used in class are key passages from the text that have appeared on previous exams.

There are several that we have not addressed in lesson.

Each extract requires you to analyse for character, language and theme.

Thus, there are several revision exercises that are quite useful. They are as follows:
Revision Tasks
1. Identify the characters introduced in the passages you identified as containing key themes and then note details about their characteristics/actions/purpose.

2. Annotate quotations from the examples you identified yesterday as containing key themes, looking at the language used, and then explain the impact it has on the reader and why Orwell chose to use it.

3. Create a detailed storyboard of the chapters with quotes and explanations.

4. Create your own revision questions testing your knowledge of plot, character, themes or language.
Full transcript