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Knee Physiology I

Anatomy and Physiology of the Knee Joint: Part 1

Jake Kaupp

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of Knee Physiology I

Anatomy & Physiology
The Knee Joint
Gross Anatomy
Evolutionary adaptation at it's finest
Curvatures of the Lower Limb
This guy, he's everywhere
Euler Buckling
Alignment of the lower limb
Fick's Experient (1911)
Self-shaping of articular surfaces
Adapted for deep flexion and enhanced strength
Femoral Functional Architecture
'The mullet of the lower limb'
Tibial Functional Architecture
5 Degree rotation between condyles
of the distal femur and tibial plateau
Natural torsion between condyles and head of the femur of about 30 degrees
25 Degree rotation in the tibia between
the proximal and distal end
When these rotations are considered together, the net effect aligns the ankle joint with the femoral head
Architecture of the lower limb
During gait, forward movement of the swing limb brings the ipsilateral hip forward and pelvic rotation brings the foot directly forward for strike
of the
The Knee Joint Anatomy Challenge
A. Patellar tendon
B. Medial Condyle
C. Tibia
D. Medial Collateral Ligament
E. Femur
F. Medial Meniscus
G. Fibula
H. Lateral Collateral Ligament
I. Transverse Ligament
J. Patellar Area
"Step right up ladies and gents"
Knee Joint: Articular Surfaces
Lateral Condyle
Interesting functional anatomy: Archimedes Spiral
Medial Condyle
Interesting functional anatomy: Archimedes Spiral
Archimedes Spiral
It is the locus of points corresponding to the locations over time of a point moving away from a fixed point with a constant speed along a line which rotates with constant angular velocity.
Congruent-ish surfaces to Femoral Condyles
Knee Joint: Tibial Articular Surfaces
Knee Joint Motion
Knee Joint Motion #2
Knee movement in the sagittal plane
Predominantly rolling during normal gait
Knee Movement: Rolling
Rolling, Rotating and Sliding
Rolling without sliding
Seeking mechanical analogues to describe the complex rolling and sliding motions of the knee joint as limited by the cruciate ligaments
Understanding Knee Motion
Issues with the 4-bar linkage model:

1. Axial rotation of the knee
2. PCL not tight through motion
3. PCL not straight through motion
4. The ACL and PCL are not coplanar
This is a good attempt to explain and characterize the motion, but there exist some concerns...
Mensicii: Load Distribution Centers
Meniscii: Constrain the joint, providing spacing allowing for smooth motion
MCL & LCL: Limit lateral motion
ACL & PCL: Limit rotation and forward motion
Full transcript