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Atoms

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by

Matthew Steinlauf

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Atoms

Science Map
Matthew Steinlauf
Smallest unit of
Matter
Organized in
Periodic Table
Basic Structure of Atom
Protons( Inside Nucleus)
Neutrons(Inside Nucleus)
Electrons( Surrounds Nucleus)
Every Atom On Table Has
Atomic Number
Relative Atomic Mass
Chemical Name
Two Or More Atoms attached By Chemical Bonds
Molecules
Represent Molecules Using
Chemical Formulas
2 Categories classified
Pure Substances

Mixtures
Types of Pure Substances
Elements
(Pure Substance
Made up of only 1
type of Atom)

Compounds
(Pure Substance
When 2
different atoms combine)
Types of Mixtures
Homogeneous
(Mixture Where
Molecules
Mix Together)
Heterogeneous
(Mixture is not
Uniformly
distributed)
Model
Particle Model
What a good Model Should Have
1.Link Observations Together
2.Easy To Understand
3.Explain Reality and
Predict Future Phenomena
4. Can be Improved as new
knowledge comes
5 Principles of Particle Model
1. All Matter is made
of particles
2. Every Pure Substance
has it's own type of particles
3. Particles are naturally attracted
4. Particles are always moving
5. Particles within a higher temperature
move faster
Information Used to Identify a substance
Property
Types of Properties
Non
Characteristic
( Cannot help
us distinguish
a pure substance from
another)
Characteristic
(Helps us
Identify a pure
substance from
another)
Physical
(Properties
we can observe
without changing
it's nature)
Chemical
(Properties
we can observe
but you change
the nature)
Characteristic Properties
Melting Point
(Temperature
where solid
becomes
liquids)
Boiling Point
(temperature
where liquid
becomes gas)
Density
( the amount
of matter in a
given space)
Type of Homogeneous Mixture
Solubility
( homogeneous
mixture involving
solvent and solute)
Characteristic Property
Indicators
( Substances
that react chemically
in the presence of
an indicator)
Types of Indications
1. Color Change
2. Effervescence
3.Precipitation
4.Change in Energy
Other Properties
Concentration
(The amount of solute
in a solution)
Types of Concentration
1.Dilution
Adding solvent
2. Dissolution
Adding solute
3. Evaporation
Reducing Solvent
What Determines Solubility
1. Temperature
2. Nature of Solute
3. Nature of Solvent
Temperature is
Energy
( Necessary
to produce
work or motion)

Forms of Energy
Chemical
( Energy
contained
in chemical bonds)

Mechanical (Energy
released
by movement of
the body )
Potential ( Energy object
posses to its position in
space)
Kinetic( energy possessed by a
body or object in motion)
Thermal
( Form of energy
associated with
heat and inner
motion of particles)
Radiant
(Energy contained
in light and other
waves)
Law of Conservation
( Energy is neither
created or destroyed
but transformed)

Energy Transformed
( Change of energy
from one form to
another)

Energy Transfer
(Movement of
energy from
one place
to another)

This process is a change
Physical Change
( a change
that does not
chemically alter the substance)
Other type of change
Chemical change
( a change that
alters the nature of
a substance)

Example of Property
Fluid
(Substance
which does
not contain
a definite from
Properties of a fluid
1. Viscosity
(A fluid's
resistance to
flow)
2. Density
3. Mass
Balancing
Equations

Types of Chemical Changes
1. Synthesis
2.Decomposition
3.Oxidation
4.Precipitation

Associated with Fluids
Pressure
(Measurement
of force on a
surface.
P= Force/ Area
Compose
Cells
(The basic
unit of life)
Role of Organization of cells
Organism
System
Organ
Tissue
Cell
Contains genetic information
D.N.A
(Forms a
double helix)
Made of Nitrogenous bases
Adenine
Thymine
Cytosine
Guanine
Nitrogen Bases Form
Genetic
Code
Segment of D.N.A
Genes
( Determines
particular
genetic
characteristics)
Condensed D.N.A
Chromosome
(Contains
genes)
Processes of division
Mitosis
(The process
of dividing a mother
cell into two genetically
identical daughter cells
which are diploids
they have 23 pairs of
chromosomes)
Meiosis
(Cell divison producing
four reproductive
cells
genetically
differnt from the
original somatic cell
Main Functions
Growth and
Development
( Increase number
of cells to make up
the organism)
Regeneration
( Replacing
dying cells)
Types of Tissues
Process of Mitosis
1. Interphase
2.Prophase
3. Metaphase
4. Anaphase
5. Telophase
Fusion of Genetic Material
Fertilization
( Fusion of
genetic material
from spermatozoon
and ovum to
produce a zygote)
Ephithelial
(lines outer
surfaces of
the body
and the
internal
surfaces of organs.)
Connective
( Used to protect,
support an connect
other tissues, it
is the most common
tissue.)
Muscle
( Elongated
cells that
can contract)
Nerve
( Made
of Nerve cells
called
Neurons.)
Type of system
Digestive
System
Food is broken down into
Nutrients
( Substances
which provide
body with
energy)
Divided into two groups
Digestive
Track
Digestive
Glands
Types of Nutrients
Complex
1.Carbohydrates
2.Proteins
3. Fats
Simple
1. Vitamins
2.Minerals
3. Water
Functions of Complex Nutrients
Functions of Simple Nutrients
Energy Values of A Nutrient
Type of respiration
Cell
Respiration
( Occurs
using Glucose.
Obtained
by digestion of
Carbohydrates.)
1. Carbohydrates
provide short term energy
2. Fats provide long term energy
3. Proteins build and repair tissues
and provide energy in case of need
1. Vitamins
regulate Metabolism
2.Minerals
regulate Metabolism
3. regulate Metabolism and
transports various substances
Quantity of
energy that nutrients
supply to the body
expressed in
Kilojoules
Two types of digestion
process
Mechanical
transformation
( Nature of substances
remains the
same,only
physical
appearance changes)
Chemical
Transformation
( The bonds of
the molecules are
broken which
gives rise to
new substances)
Examples
1. Insalivation (
food mixed with
Saliva)
2. Deglutition
(Swallowing)
3. Peristalsis ( Movement
of muscles surrounding
the digestive track)
4. Churning ( movement due
to muscular contractions of the
stomach wall)
5. Emulsion ( Mixing two
immiscible substances)
Examples
1. Saliva
2. Gastric juices
3. Pancreatic juices
4.Intestinal juices
Dual role of Cell Respiration
1. Supplies
body's cells
with oxygen
2.Eliminates
Carbon Dioxide

Anatomy of Respiratory System
Parts of Respiratory Tract
1. Nasal Cavities
( Filters large dust
particles and coated
with mucus to moisten
air)
2. pharynx (Carries air
to Trachea and food to
the Esophagus)
3. Larynx ( Carries air
and produces sounds)
4. Trachea ( Further filters
and purifies air)
5. bronchi ( Carries air into the
lungs)
Contains the Bronchioles and Alveoli
The lungs

Physiology
of the Respiratory
system
The movements
allow air to
enter and exit the lungs
by inhalation
and exhalation
Inhalation
( Intercostals
muscles contract
and lift ribs and sternum.
Diaphragm moves
downwards, increases
volume in the rib cage
and lungs and decrease
pressure inside the lungs
Atoms
Exhalation
(Intercostals
muscles
relax and lower the
ribs and sternum.
Diaphragm
moves up towards
abdomen, decreases volume
in the rib cage and
pressure inside lungs
increase
Full transcript