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Chapter 04--World History

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MIchael Rundall

on 3 May 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 04--World History

Chapter 4--Ancient Greece Section 1 Early People of the Aegean Minoans Trade and Prosper Trade and War in Mycenae Homer and the Great Legends of Greece Looking Ahead Greece is comprised of a mountainous peninsula and lots of island Mountains created small, independent communities, encouraged political participation and war between the communities Greeks sailed to the Aegean, Black, and Mediterranean Seas Set up colonies and trade through out the Mediterranean area. Established on Crete Named after king Minos by the British archaeologist who discovered the
ruins Flourished between 2700 and 1450 BC Based out of Knossos, sailed to southern Greece and Egypt for trade Palace in Knossos made up of brightly colored rooms, workshops for
making vases, ivory figurines, jewelry, bathrooms with drains Giant jars for oils and wine, grain were used for tax payments Suffered a catastrophe around 1450 BC caused either by a tidal
wave/volcano or invasion by the Mycenaeans The Minoan Culture Known for their frescoes at Knossos What did these focus on? Made up of an alliance of powerful monarchies, each living in a fortified
center with in large stone walls, the rest of the population lived outside
these walls A large beehive-shaped tholos tombs is the burial place of the royal family Warrior Culture murals show hunting and fighting Extensive commercial network, pottery has been found throughout the
Mediterranean area Conquered some of Greek islands and possibly Crete The poet Homer outlines their supposed military adventures Greeks enter a Dark Age 1000 to 70 BC. Remember the time continuum. So named because few records of the period exist, both population and
food production fell Iron replaced bronze during this time improving weaponry and farming The Phoenician alphabet was formed in the 8th century BC making reading
and writing easier Homer wrote to great epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey The Iliad The Iliad takes place during the Trojan war. Paris, a Trojan prince,
kidnaps Helen, the wife of the king of Sparta. The Mycenaean Greeks lay siege to Troy for ten years, finally taking the city with the infamous Trojan horse. The Odyssey The Odyssey tells of the Greek hero to Odysseus’ ten year return to his home and famil Homer’s poems gave Greeks an ideal past and set of values.
The values in them were used to educate Greek males for generations. Fathers had their sons memorize all of Homer to learn how to act well and be virtuous men Basic values of Homer Courage Honor The Greek hero
struggled for excellence, or arête, which is won in a struggle or contest. Through fighting and protecting family and friends, the man preserves his
and his family’s honor. He also wins an honorable reputation, the sign of
arête Following the Minoans and Mycenae, Greeks entered a period of isolation. Culture would develop utilizing history and other cultures Would become widespread throughout Europe Quiz Time! Section 2: The Rise of Greek City-States Geography Shapes Greece Governing The City-States Sparta--A Warrior Society Athens Evolves Into A Democracy Forces For Unity The polis (city-state) was the central focus of Greek life. It was a town, city, or village serving as a center where people met for political, economic, social, and religious activities Main gathering place was usually on a hill topped with a fortified area
called the acropoli Below was the agora (an open area for people to assemble and for a market) Most city-states were between a few hundred and several thousand people However, the population of Athens was over 300,000 by the 5th century
BC The polis was a community of people who shared and identity and goals. There were 3 classes of citizens: Citizens with political rights (adult males) Citizens with out political rights (women and children) Non-citizens (salves and resident aliens) Landscape defines Political Boundaries Recall that Greece is part of the Balkan Peninsula The Greeks who farmed the valleys or settled on the scattered islands built many small city-states, City-States included a city and it's currounding countryside The seas provided a vital link to the world outside The Greeks became skilled sailors and carried cargoes of olive oil, wine, and marble to parts throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Spread of ideas/culture through trade Responsibilities accompanied rights. Aristotle stated “We must regard
every citizen as belonging to the state” What does this mean? The city-states fiercely
patriotic and distrustful of each other The city-states’ independence and
warring helped bring Greece to ruin A new military system based on hoplites developed by 700 BC. Hoplites
were infantry who carried a shield, sword, and spear. They fought
shoulder to shoulder in a formation called a phalanx. This close formation
made them a powerful force Colonies were founded in Italy, France, Spain and northern Africa, along the shores of the Black Sea, Constantinople and Istanbul Increased trade and industry in pottery, wine, and olive oil and imports in lumber, grain, and slaves created a new wealthy class of merchants who wanted political power Creation of new, wealthy class led the rise of tyrants. Tyrant simply refers to a leader who seized power by force from the ruling aristocrats. Because the aristocrats oppressed them, the peasants supported the tyrant Tyrants seized power and kept it by hiring soldiers. Built new walls and
temples, thus glorifying their cities. However, they fell out of power
eventually as their rule contradicted the rule of law, a Greek ideal New classes began to participate in government when tyranny ended Some city-states became democracies (ruled by many), others oligarchies (ruled by few) Athens and Sparta show the differences between the 2 kinds of rule Tyrtaeus, a Spartan poet in the 600s B.C., wrote elegies that praised and encouraged bravery and honor on theSpartan battlefields. What did he mean by this? Gained land through conquest of Laconians and Messenians.

These people became serfs, working for the Spartans. They were called helots, the Greek word for capture Sparta created a military state to retain power over the helots. Boys learned military discipline; they entered the military at 20 and lived in the barracks until 30. They ate all meals in public dining halls, eating a broth
of pork boiled in animal blood, vinegar and salt Spartans could marry at 20 and vote at 30. They stayed in the army until
60. Spartan women lived at home while their husbands lived in the
barracks. Women were expected to remain fit and to bear and raise
children. They expected their men to be brave in battle, to either win or be
killed 2 kings headed the army and the oligarchy. 5 men known as ephors were
in charge of education and citizen’s conduct A council of 2 kings and 28
men over 60 years old decided what issues the assembly would vote on.
The assembly only voted, they did not debate Sparta closed themselves off from the outside world They discouraged
travel and travelers except for military reasons. Art was discouraged as
were new ideas. The only focus was..... War! .Originally ruled by a king but soon moved towards rule by an oligarchy or aristocrats who owned the best land and controlled the political life Athens had serious economic and political troubles under the oligarchy Farmers were sold into slavery for nonpayment of debts to aristocrats, cries arose to cancel the debts and give the land to the poor Solon, a reformist aristocrat, was appointed to handle problems, He canceled debts but did not give the land to the poor, leading to continued
internal strife and eventually to tyranny What is tyranny? Pisistratus seized power and helped the merchants and gave land to the
poor Cleisthenes created a new council of 500 to propose laws and supervise the treasury and foreign affairs The assembly of all men had final
authority to pass laws after free debate. These reforms laid the foundation
for Athenian democracy Quiz Time! Section 3: Conflict in the Greek World The Persian Wars The Age of Pericles and Direct Democracy The Peloponnesian War The Greeks came into contact with the Persian Empire in the east The Greek cities in western Asia Minor tried to revolt against the Persians, They were not successful and the Persian ruler Darius sought revenge The Athenians defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon, only 26 miles from Athens Xerxes (the Persian king who followed Darius) vowed revenge on the Greeks, this caused the Athenians to rebuild their navy, eventually becoming about 200 strong. Xerxes invaded with an army of 180,000
troops with thousands of warships and supply vessels Only 7,000 Greeks were able to hold them off until a traitor showed the Persians a mountain path to beat the Greeks This battle caused Athenians to abandon their city, however the Greek army was about to defeat the Persians. Not long after, the Greeks formed
their largest army ever at Plataea and were able to defeat the Persians After the Persian defeat, Athens became the leader of the Greek world. An alliance called the Delian League was formed and headquartered on the island of Delos The league expelled almost all of the Persians from Greek city-states. League’s officials were all Athenians and the treasury was moved from Delos to Athens, thus helping to create the Athenian empire Pericles was a prime figure in Athenian politics during the expansion of Athenian power. Democracy and culture thrived during this time, making it the height of Athenian power and brilliance, this period is known as the
Age of Pericles A direct democracy was put into place under Pericles, this opened politics to the people by holding mass meetings, every male citizen could participate in the general assembly and vote on major issues Most residents of Athens were not citizens 43,000 male citizens over 18 made up the assembly but only a few thousand attended on a regular basis. The assembly passed all laws, elected public officials, and decided on war and foreign policy. Anyone was allowed to speak Under Pericles, lower-class male citizens were eligible for public office, Office-holders were paid, thus making it possible for lower-class citizens
to participate in politics Ten officials known as generals directed the
policy of the Athenian government. Ostracism was developed to protect the Athenians from overly ambitious
politicians If 6000 assembly members voted so, that person was banned
from the city for 10 years The treasury of the Delian League was used to rebuild Athens after the city was looted and burned by Persians. Athens became the center of Greek culture; art, architecture, and philosophy flourished, called the “school of Greece” by Pericles Greece was divided between the Athenian Empire and Sparta. The societies of the 2 differed greatly. Sparta and its allies feared the growth of the Athenian Empire, after a series of disputes the Great Peloponnesian War broke out Athens planned to win by staying behind its walls, receiving supplies from its colonies and powerful navy. The Spartans surrounded Athens and
hoped the Athenian army would come out and fight. Pericles knew the Spartan army would win in open battle, so the Athenians stayed behind the walls A plague broke out in Athens, killing a third of the population in 430 BC, the next year Pericles died. The Athenians continued to fight for 25 years,
eventually being defeated in 405 BC, the navy was destroyed, the walls were torn down, the Athenian Empire was destroyed and the war ended The war weakened the Greek city-states and ruined cooperation among
them. For 66 years Sparta, Athens and Thebes struggled for domination, The struggle caused Greeks to ignore the growing power of Macedonia, costing them their freedom Section 4--The Glory That Was Greece Section 5--Alexander and the Hellenistic Age Quiz Time! The Empire of Alexander the Great The Legacy of Alexander Hellenistic Arts and Sciences Philosopher's Love of Wisdom Greek Literature Recording Events As History Athens had the largest population of the 5th
century city-states, about 150,000 citizens and 35,000 foreigners before the plague hit. Foreigners were protected by the laws and shared some responsibility including
military service and funding for festivals. Only the male citizens were
allowed political power About 100,000 slaves was present in Athens, most Athenian families owned at least 1 slave. Slaves worked in industry, field, and the household. City-state owned slaves worked on construction projects The economy was based mostly on farming and trade. Grapes and olives were the main items cultivated used for wine and olive oil. Grain was a basic item in the Athenian diet 50-80 percent of which was imported. A port was built at Piraievs, making Athens the leading trader at the time Female citizens were allowed to participate in religious festivals but had no other public life. They were not allowed to own property beyond
personal items. If they left the house the were required to have someone with them. The women were expected to be a good wife, bear children and keep the household. Girls did not get a formal education and were
married at age 14 or 15 Basic Athenian Principles Philosophy (“love of wisdom”) refers to an organized system of rational thought Early Greek philosophers were concerned with the nature of the universe
explained through unifying principles. For example, Pythagoras taught that the essence of the universe was found in
music and numbers. In the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle raised
questions that have been debated ever since. Socrates taught many pupils but accepted no payment He believed the goal of education was only to improve the individual’s soul. He introduced a way of teaching still used today called the Socratic method It uses a process of question and answer to get students to understand things for themselves. Socratic Method Example Socrates said, “The unexamined life is not worth living.” The belief in the individual’s power to reason was an important contribution of Greek culture. Socrates and his pupils questioned authority. After losing the Peloponnesian War, Athenians did not trust open debate Socrates was tried and convicted of corrupting the youth. He was sentenced to death and died by drinking hemlock. Plato was one of Socrates’ students and considered by many the greatest Western philosopher He was preoccupied with the nature of reality and how we know reality According to Plato, an ideal world of Forms is the highest reality Only a mind fully trained by philosophy can grasp the nature of the Forms The material objects that appear in the physical world (e.g., a particular tree) are
images or shadows of these universal Forms (e.g., treeness). Plato was concerned that the city-states be virtuous–just and rational. Only then could citizens achieve a good life. He explained his ideas about government in The Republic, in which he outlines
the structure of the ideal, virtuous state. The ideal state has three groups--–rulers, motivated by wisdom; warriors, motivated
by courage; and commoners, motivated by desire. Only when balance was instilled by the rule of a philosopher-king, who had
learned about true justice and virtue, would there be a just state. Then individuals could live the good life. Plato also believed that men and women should have the same education and equal access to all positions. Plato established a school in Athens called the Academy His most important pupil was Aristotle, who studied there for 20 years Aristotle did not believe in a world of ideal Forms He thought of forms, or essences, as part of the things of the material world We know treeness, for example, by examining individual trees. Aristotle was interested, therefore, in analyzing and classifying things by observation and investigation. In this way we could know reality. He wrote on ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and
physics. Like Plato, Aristotle was interested in the best form of government, one that
would rationally direct human affairs. He tried to find this form of government by analyzing existing governments. He looked at the constitutions of 158 states and found three good forms: Monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government. What are the differences? Of these, the third was the
best. Aristotle’s ideas about government are in his Politics. The Greeks, principally in Athens, created Western drama Plays were presented as part of religious festivals. The original Greek dramas were tragedies, presented in trilogies around a common theme. Only one complete trilogy survives today, the Oresteia by Aeschylus. It tells about the fate of Agamemnon and his family after he returned from the Trojan War. Evil acts are shown to breed evil and suffering, but in the end reason triumphs over evil. Another famous Athenian playwright was Sophocles, whose most famous play
was Oedipus Rex. Even though Oedipus knows an oracle has foretold he will kill his father and
marry his mother, he commits these tragic acts. A third important Athenian dramatist, Euripides, created more realistic characters
and showed more of an interest in real-life situations and individual psychology. He also questioned traditional values For example, he showed the horrors of war
and sympathized with its victims, especially women and children. Greek tragedies examined such universal themes as the nature of good and evil,
the rights of the individual, the role of the gods in life, and the nature of human
beings. Greek comedy developed later, and criticized society to invoke a reaction. Aristophanes is the most important Greek comic playwright The Greeks also applied observation, reason, and logic to the study of history. Herodotus is often called the “Father of History” in the Western world because he went beyond listing names of rulers or the retelling of ancient legends. Herodotus used the Greek term historie, which means inquiry, to define his work. Thucydides, who was a few years younger than Herodotus, wrote about the Peloponnesian War, Quiz Time! The Greeks viewed their northern neighbors, the Macedonians, as barbarians because they were rural people who did not live in city-states. By the end of the fifth century B.C., however, Macedonia was a powerful kingdom In 359 B.C., Philip II became king of Macedonia He admired Greek culture and wanted to unite all of Greece under Macedonian rule. The Macedonian army crushed an army of Greek city-states at the Battle of
Chaeronea in 338 B.C. He insisted that the conquered Greek city-states form a league under his control and help him conquer Persia. Before he could fulfill his goal, he was assassinated. Alexander the Great, Philip’s son, became king of Macedonia when only 20. He had been educated by the great Greek philosopher Aristotle. Alexander considered non-Greeks the equal of Greeks and envisioned a world in which mixed cultures would live together To this end, he married two Persian princesses and encouraged his generals to marry Persian princesses His father had taught him military tactics and leadership Alexander moved immediately to fulfill his father’s dream of conquering Persia Alexander wanted glory, empire, and revenge for the Persian burning of Athens in 480 B.C. Alexander entered Asia Minor in 334 B.C. with an army of thirty-seven thousand Macedonians and Greeks, including five thousand cavalry. By 331 B.C., Alexander had conquered the Persian Empire and established the city of Alexandria in Egypt. It was and is one of the most important cities in Egypt and the Mediterranean area. Alexander was not content. In 326 B.C., he crossed the Indus River and entered India. Weary from many hard battles, his soldiers refused to continue on, and Alexander agreed to return home. In 323 B.C., he died in Babylon, exhausted from wounds, fever, and alcohol. Alexander’s military success was due to his courage and a mastery of military tactics. He modeled himself on Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan War. His example inspired his men to follow him. Alexander created a new age, called the Hellenistic Era. The word Hellenistic means “to imitate Greeks.” This era saw the expansion of the Greek language and ideas to the non-Greek
world of Southwest Asia and beyond After Alexander’s death, his empire fell apart as Macedonian generals vied for power There were four Hellenistic kingdoms: Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum in western
Asia Minor, and Egypt All were conquered later by the Romans. Unlike Alexander, these Hellenistic monarchs included only Greeks and
Macedonians in their ruling class. In Egypt, Alexander founded Alexandria, which became the largest city in the
Mediterranean region by the first century B.C. Later Hellenistic rulers also founded cities and military settlements They encouraged Greek colonization in Southwest Asia. These cities became home to many Greek immigrants who were recruits in the
army, workers who contributed to the economy, and artists who spread Greek
culture. The Hellenistic Era saw considerable cultural achievement, especially in science and philosophy. The most important cultural center was Alexandria, home to scholars of all kinds– philosophers, scientists, and writers. Alexandria’s library was the largest of its kind, with over five hundred thousand scrolls. Founding and rebuilding cities provided opportunities for architects and sculptors. The baths, theaters, and temples that characterized the Greek homeland lined the streets of the Hellenistic cities. Hellenistic sculptors added realism and emotion to the classical period’s technical skill. Important advances in mathematics and astronomy were made during the
Hellenistic Age Aristarchus developed the theory that the sun is the center of the universe and that
the earth rotates around the sun. Eratosthenes determined that Earth is round and nearly calculated the correct circumference of the Earth. Euclid wrote a textbook on plane geometry, the Elements, that was used up to modern times. Archimedes was one of the most important Hellenistic scientists He established the value of pi and did important work in the geometry of spheres
and cylinders. He also invented machines to repel attackers during his city’s siege and, perhaps, the Archimedes screw, used in pumping and irrigation. It is said that when he discovered specific gravity while in the bath, he jumped up and ran down the street naked shouting, “Eureka!” (“I have found it!”) He thought levers were so significant that reportedly he told the king of Syracuse,
“Give me a lever and a place to stand on and I will move the earth.” Athens remained a center for philosophy It became the center of two new schools of thought, Epicureanism and Stoicism Epicurus believed that human beings were free to follow their self-interest. Happiness was the goal of life, and happiness was achieved by pursuing pleasure, the only true good. Pleasure, however, was not satisfying physical appetites but rather the freedom from anxiety that comes from a mind at rest Achieving this peace meant removing oneself from public life, but not social life. Life could only be fulfilled when centered on virtuous friendship. A teacher named Zeno founded Stoicism This school of thought also emphasized achieving happiness. For the Stoics, however, happiness was gained by living in harmony with the will of God. Then life’s problems could not disturb a person. Stoics also regarded public service as noble and did not remove themselves from public life. Quiz Time! That is the end of the Unit! Religion affected all aspects of Greek life because Greeks considered religion necessary for the well-being of the state. Temples to the gods and goddesses were the major buildings in Greek cities. Homer described the deities of Greek religion Most important were the twelve gods and goddesses that lived on Mount Olympus. The chief god and father of the gods was Zeus; Athena was the goddess of wisdom and crafts; Apollo was the god of the sun and poetry; Aphrodite was the goddess of love; Zeus’s brother, Poseidon, was the god of the sea. Religious festivals were used to honor the gods and goddesses. These festivals included athletic events. The games at Olympia honoring Zeus, first held in 776 B.C., are the basis of the modern Olympic Games. The Greeks wanted to know the will of the gods and goddesses. To this end, they consulted oracles, sacred shrines where priests or priestesses revealed the future through interpreting the will of the deities. The most famous oracle was at the shrine to Apollo at Delphi, on the side of Mount Parnassus overlooking the Gulf of Corinth. Representatives of states and individuals traveled to this oracle. The responses of the priests and priestesses often could be interpreted in more than one way. For example, Croesus, king of Lydia, asked the oracle if he should go to war with the Persians. The oracle replied that if he did he would destroy a great empire. Thinking he would destroy the Persians, Croesus went to war and destroyed his own empire. Greek Religion
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