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Judaism: Change over time

A brief overview over how Judaism has changed

Abby Jones

on 12 December 2012

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Transcript of Judaism: Change over time

Judaism Key Beliefs Monotheistic There is only one god, he cannot be split up into different persons God does not have a body He is all powerful and has created everything God has made a covenant with the Jewish people, and for that they pray to him and seek to bring holiness into every aspect of their lives. People follow the Ten Commandments, and observe the Sabbath Origins! Formed c. 2000 BCE in Canaan God made a covenant with Abraham and his descendants, making them the sacred people, giving them the Holy Land- story told in the Old Testament God gave Moses the set of rules by which the jews should live by- including the ten commandments Key Turning Points The jews became a powerful people under kings such as Saul, David, and Solomon, who built the first great temple Worship was focused in the temple, because it contained the Ark of Covenant (The only place where certain rites could be carried out) 920 BCE- The kingdom falls apart, splits the Jews into two groups 600 BCE- The temple is destroyed, and the Jewish people are sent into exile in Babylon Even though the exile soon ended, this began the diaspora, Jewish people living away from Israel. 175 BCE- The King of Syria attempted to wipe out the Jews. In response, the Jews revolted This lead to the celebration of Hanukkah! 1 CE- Jesus is born. He is a Jewish teacher, but his followers split away and form Christianity. 70 CE- Rabbinical Judaism was formed after the destruction of the second temple Rabbis were there to reinterpret Jewish practices in the absence of the temple This lead to the Talmud! Generalizations! For the most part, the Jews are persecuted throughout history. The Jews are not in their holy land for most of their history. Judaism is a community-centered religion. Notes Religion: Judaism OriginsFormedc. 2000 B.C.E.OriginCanaanFollowers14,000,000DeityGod (monotheistic)Sacred TextsTorah, Tanakh (Hebrew scriptures), TalmudHeadquartersNoneGod made a covenant with Abraham and his lineage- sacred people, give them holy land Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Prophet Moses Holy book- Torah Isaac takes control after Abraham, after being chosen b/c of his miraculous birth from his infertile mother Esau and Jacob fight over who inherits birthright, Jacob wins, gaining the name Israel “one who wrestles with God” after encountering an angel Has twelve sons who are ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel God creates another covenant with DavidMoses is the actual founder of the religionJudaism was the first monotheistic religionGod chooses to behave in a way that is both just and fairBeliefs Creation: GENESISRevelation: EXODUSRedemptioncreation mythfloodcovenant with NoahGod and Israel on Sinaifreedom from slaveryreceived as God’s peopleGod has created everything, and each person can have a personal relationship with HimGod continues his work in the world, affecting everything that people do In exchange for the deeds God has done and continues to do, they keep his laws, and seek to bring holiness into every aspect of their lives Jewish life is that of a community, they do many activities as a community (they use we and our in prayer instead of I and mine) Family faithBaby boys are circumcised at eight days old (following the instructions God gave Abraham) Customs revolve around the homeSabbath meal, families join together to welcome the special day Jews are people who are children of a Jewish mother Even if people convert to a different faith, they are still a Jew, they just lose the religious element to their identity Hard to convert to Judaism Judaism- living the faithA summary of what Jews believe about GodGod existsThere is only one GodThere are no other godsGod can't be subdivided into different persons (unlike the Christian view of God)Jews should worship only the one GodGod is Transcendent: God is above and beyond all earthly things.God doesn't have a body Which means that God is neither female nor male.God created the universe without helpGod is omnipresent: God is everywhere, all the time.God is omnipotent: God can do anything at all.God is beyond time: God has always existedGod will always exist.God is just, but God is also merciful God punishes the badGod rewards the goodGod is forgiving towards those who mess things up.God is personal and accessible. God is interested in each individualGod listens to each individualGod sometimes speaks to individuals, but in unexpected ways.Customs Every week, Jews observe the Sabbath, their holy dayBegins at nightfall on Friday, lasts till an hour after sunset on SaturdayFourth commandment Day of rest A reminder of the CovenantSee it as a gift from God, an oasis from stressTraditional greetings: Shabbat shalom or gut Shabbos A family time All chores must be completed on Friday Go to the synagogue Eruvs- an area where Jews can carry items on the Sabbath Tefillin- boxes that men wear on their heads and arms during prayer on weekdaysKippah A small hat worn by Jews Always worn by Orthodox Jews Liberal Jews see it as optional Head covering- controversy over if it’s a commandment. Some think it is, others don’t Holy daysHanukkah Sabbath Passover Rosh Hashanah Yom Kippur History Old testament tells the story of how God chose the Jews to be an example to the world Begins during Bronze age God chooses Abraham to be father of the people who would be special to God God gave Moses the set of rules by which they should live, including the ten commandments Jews became powerful people under kings such as Saul, David, and Solomon, who built the first great templeWorship focused on that temple, b/c it contained the Ark of the Covenant, the only place where certain rites could be carried out 920 BCE- Kingdom falls apart, Jewish people split into two groups 600 BCE- temple destroyed, Jewish leadership killed. Jews sent into exile in Babylon. Exile soon ended, and they were allowed to return home, but many did not, beginning the diaspora (living away from Israel)Jewish lands were ruled by foreign peoples, but they became more able to practice their faith freely 175 BCE- King of Syria desecrated the temple and attempted to wipe out Judaism- people revolted, leading to the celebration of Hanukkah Jews at peace with Roman empire for a time, but internal divisions weakened the Kingdom and Romans took power In following years, Jews were suppressed by “puppet” rulers who neglected the practices of JudaismPriests were allied to rulers and lost favour among the people, who then turned to the Scribes, the Rabbis 1 CE- Jesus born, Jewish teacher, whose followers split away and formed Christianity 70 CE- Rabbicinal Judaism developed in response to the destruction of the second temple (Rabbis were there to reinterpret Jewish practices in the absence of the Temple. This led to the Talmud!) Jews lost their rights under the Romans, could not practice their religion Some religious tolerance in early middle ages, more later on. Lots of attempting to convert them, others punishing them for being JewishCrusaders attacked Jewish people Sources http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Orthodox.html http://www.patheos.com/Library/Judaism/Origins/Historical-Perspectives.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/history/history_1.shtml
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