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Distinction of Teaching Approaches, Methods, and Strategies

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Djandra Di Hablo

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Distinction of Teaching Approaches, Methods, and Strategies

Approaches, Methods, and Techniques TEACHING Approaches deal with general philosophies of teaching. Methods deal with more practical nuts and bolts. Strategies deal with specific actions. APPROACH METHOD STRATEGY Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) •The Communicative Approach, also called Communicative Language Teaching or Functional Approach, was the British version of the movement in the early 1960s in reaction to the structuralism and behaviorism embodied in the audio-linguistics Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) CLT/CA is a set of principles about teaching including recommendations about method and syllabus where the focus is on meaningful communication not structure, use not usage. Its primary goal is for learners to develop communicative competence (Hymes 1971), or simply put, communicative ability Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics defines the Communicative Approach or Communicative Language Teaching as “an APPROACH to foreign or second language teaching which emphasizes that the goal of language learning is COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE.” •The audio-lingual method is a methodology used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviourist theory, which professes that humans can be trained through a system of reinforcement. Audio-lingual Method It is similar to another, earlier method called the direct method, based on the premise that students can be taught a language directly, without using their native language to explain new words orgrammar in the target language. Discussion lets class members work actively with the ideas and the concepts being pursued, and discussion sessions can be an extremely effective in changing behaviour or attitudes. Consequently, teachers use them frequently in instructional situations. Discussion APPROACH METHOD STRATEGY Competency-based Language Teaching •a functional approach to education that emphasizes life skills and evaluates mastery of those skills according to actual leaner performance.

It was defined by the U.S. Office of Education as a “performance-based process leading to demonstrated mastery of basic and life skills necessary for the individual to function proficiently in society” (U.S. Office of Education, 1978). relies on the structural view of language, •The method aims to ensure a practical command of the four basic skills of a language, through structure, accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar, ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations and an automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns. Situational Language Teaching Simulations are instructional scenarios where the learner is placed in a "world" defined by the teacher. They represent a reality within which students interact. The teacher controls the parameters of this "world" and uses it to achieve the desired instructional results. Students experience the reality of the scenario and gather meaning from it. METHOD APPROACH STRATEGY Content-based Instruction refers to an approach to second language acquisition that emphasizes the importance of content in contrast to other approaches or methods which are centred around the language itself, Content-Based Instruction is centred on the subject matter. Nevertheless, the approach aims to develop the students' language and academic skills. It sought to immerse the learner in the same way as when a first language is learnt. All teaching is done in the target language, grammar is taught inductively, there is a focus on speaking and listening, and only useful ‘everyday' language is taught. Direct method Debates •Debating is structured way of exploring the range of views on an issue. It consists of a structured contest of argumentation, in which two opposing individuals or teams defend and attack a given proposition. APPROACH METHOD STRATEGY Cooperative (Collaborative) Learning is an approach to organizing classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences. It differs from group work, and it has been described as "structuring positive interdependence." an instructional method in which students work together in small, heterogeneous groups to complete a problem, project, or other instructional goal, while teachers act as guides or facilitators. This method works to reinforce a student’s own learning as well as the learning of his or her fellow group members. Total Physical Response •Originally developed by James Asher, an American professor of psychology, in the 1960s, Total Physical Response (TPR) is based on the theory that the memory is enhanced through association with physical movement. It is also closely associated with theories of mother tongue language acquisition in very young children, where they respond physically to parental commands, such as "Pick it up" and "Put it down". is a cooperative learning technique in which students work in small groups. Jigsaw can be used in a variety of ways for a variety of goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of new material, review, or informed debate. In this method, each group member is assigned to become an "expert" on some aspect of a unit of study Jigsaw Method APPROACH METHOD STRATEGY Dogme Dogme is a communicative approach to language teaching that was initiated by Scott Thornbury in his article, “A Dogma for EFL”. Dogme advocates a kind of teaching that doesn’t rely on published textbooks but relies on conversational communication that occurs in the classroom between teachers and students. Silent Way is a language-teaching method created by Caleb Gattegno that makes extensive use of silence as a teaching technique. •The method emphasises the autonomy of the learner; the teacher's role is to monitor the students' efforts, and the students are encouraged to have an active role in learning the language. Pronunciation is seen as fundamental; beginning students start their study with pronunciation, and much time is spent practising it each lesson. Questioning The art of asking questions is at the heart of effective communication and information exchange, which underpins good teaching. If you use questioning well, you can improve the student learning experience in a whole range of Teaching Settings. METHOD APPROACH STRATEGY Lexical Approach is a method of teaching foreign languages described by M. Lewis in the 1990s. The basic concept on which this approach rests is the idea that an important part of learning a language consists of being able to understand and produce lexical phrases as chunks. Students are thought to be able to perceive patterns of language (grammar) as well as have meaningful set uses of words at their disposal when they are taught in this way. Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understanding of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively. It was developed by the Bulgarian doctor and psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov (see right). The term 'Suggestopedia', derived from suggestion and pedagogy, is often used loosely to refer to similar accelerated learning approaches. Webbing is a method of visually representing relationships among ideas, concepts or events. During this procedure, ideas and information are explored and organized. The resulting web or pattern of relationships is determined by the participants' knowledge and previous experiences, and by the purpose for webbing.
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