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Unemployment & Underemployment

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Angela Smile

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Unemployment & Underemployment

Unemployment & Underemployment
Effects of Unemployment


Increase of the number of out-of-school youth

Considered as the two of the "hard-to solve" socio-economic problems that can cause undesirable effects in one's economic and social status.

Difference between unemployment & underemployment:

Unemployment refers to a jobless condition while underemployment refers to a condition wherein an employed individual's work is insufficient to fulfill his needs

No work for a specific period of time but has the intention to acquire a decent job - unemployed

Employed individuals selling pirated DVD's, beauty products and other items inside the office - underemployed

Causes of Unemployment
Institutions have "under-subscription" of long-term courses and "over-subscription" of common courses:

Physical and natural causes such as calamities
Frequent change in season
influx of technological inventions.
Discrimination in the workplace
Prospective worker's outlook toward employment
Population growth
Underemployment &
Unemployment issues
(NSO) Nine out of ten Filipinos are literate

-Literacy rate of the Philippines has been consistent for ten years

-Newly-graduate students are desperately preoccupied with the limitless search for job opportunities

- the schools must design their curricula in consideration of the needs of the prevailing system in the company.
Social and political implications of unemployment:


increase in crime rate

Unemployed people may also blame the government because of the latter's incapability to provide/generate jobs for the masses.

Gradual degeneration of moral community norms and values.

Unemployed individuals
eventually address their distrust to the church.
- Employed individual may tend
to engaged in illegal acts in order to survive such as drug trafficking, prostitution, illegal recruitment

- The moral foundations ma not be effective in impoverished and unemployed society and individual.

- Hopelessness (self-pity and anguish) and family discord are inevitable
Types of Unemployment
Cyclical unemployment

Result fro the ups and downs of business cycle of the country
Example: if the business is experiencing a financial crunch, the firm might decide to reduce its number of workers.
Occurs because of the undesirable performance of the real Gross National Product

GNP - refers to the actual national spending which is made up of four components.

> Consumption spending by households
> Investment spending by the firms and the households
> Government purchases of goods and service
> Net Exports

It can be controlled by implementing appropriate economic policies to avoid the occurrence of such employment irregularities
Economic indications
I is cyclical because:
> if the level of cyclical unemployment is low, it means that the people don't have enough purchasing power to consume the produced goods; and
> manufactures tend to sell their goods/ products at lower prices.
Structural unemployment

Results from the mismatch between the available skill and the requirements in the labor market
Various factors for the occurrence of structural unemployment

Introduction of modern technologies
"unskilled" workers who have no knowledge about the technology (machine) are compelled to quit the
r jobs and tend to look for other jobs

Frictional unemployment

Considered as the transitional type of unemployment

Circumstances :

1. poor placement services,
2. people who are entering or re-entering the workforce
3. individuals who are "searching for greener pastures"

Technological unemployment

Employees are replaced by machines that can display fast and accurate outputs

Issues concerning technological unemployment have been the subjects of socio-economic debates

Popular labor organizations in the Philippines:

Kilusang mayo uno (KMU)
Alliance of Progressive Labor
Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP)

Started during the popularization of "industrialization"

Seasonal Unemployment

Refers to unemployment resulting from seasonal changes in the labor supply
May occur because of the climatic change and during holiday seasons


Lantern makers are virtually unemployed during off holiday season

Farm helpers are unemployed when there is a typhoon/ storms in the country

show business
Theories Employment
Theory X
often said to describe a traditional view of direction and control
it states that:

an average man dislikes work and will avoid it unless directly supervised;
employees must be forced, manipulated and directed to ensure that organizational aims are met; and,
threat of reprimand.

Theory X
it implies a more self-aimed workforce
it sates that:

employees are determined, keen to accept bigger responsibility; and
employees will work in the direction of organized purposes.
Theory Z
Employees are assured of a position for life, ever-increasing their fidelity to the company

Cautious assessment occurs over a phase of time and the accountability for accomplishment or breakdown is shared among workers and the board

Most workers do not concentrate in one skill area, but work t several different tasks

Some industries are often anxious about all aspects of their employees lives on and off the job

Many of these outcomes are analogous to Theory Y.

Unemployment Pool
People always decide at any point to quit job find work

Four reasons to be considered or to be a part of the unemployed pool

Person might be a new graduate or new entrant in the labor force
Person who resigned from his job in search for other employment and may be considered unemployed while searching
person may be laid off from work

Lay-off refers to a suspension without pay lasting for more than 7 consecutive days which is initiated by the employer without prejudice to the worker

Worker may loose his/her jo either he/she is fired or because the firm closes down.
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