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French Revolution ABC Book
Transcript of French Revolution ABC Book
The National Assembly was created by the Third Estate, which consisted of over 90% of the population of France. The National Assembly claimed to be the sole authority to make laws for France. The Assembly created the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, which was illegal in the Old Regime, & was a catalyst for the French Revolution.
The Haitian Revolution was inspired by the French Revolution, & the Enlightenment Ideas that were used in it. When the Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen was created, the Haitians that wanted freedom & more rights (mostly the slaves) used this document as justification for their revolts because it was a universal document, & not just for the people that lived in France.
Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobins & was the chairman of the Committee of Public Safety. In 1793, he began what is known as the Reign of Terror to kill whoever was thought to be an enemy of the revolution. He was executed on a guillotine in 1794.
King Louis XVI
He was the King of France during the revolution. He was an indecisive ruler, & Queen Marie was usually the person who took charge. Because of his involvement in the American Revolution, the French government went further into debt, & sped up the revolutions start after calling upon the Estates-General. He died in 1793, after being executed on a guillotine.
French Révolution ABC Book
by Jorge Garcia
The Sans-Culottes were the working men of Paris. Sans-Culottes means "without knee breeches", a clothing item that distinguished them from the upper class. During the revolution, they were part of the radical movement, but decreased in power after the death of Robespierre.
The Bourgeoisie were the middle-class in French society. They were part of the Third-Estate, & with the wealth that many of them had, were allowed moderate voices during the revolution. The Bourgeoisie were angered by the privileges that the nobles & aristocracy had, as they had wealth like them.
Storming of the Bastille
The Bastille was an armory & a prison. In 1789, it was raided by sans-culottes, & they used the weapons inside to arm French citizens. The Storming of the Bastille was more symbolic than anything else, & is still celebrated in France today.
Because the French government was in deep debt, they decided to raise taxes on the peasant population. This occurred with the peasants because the upper-classes refused to pay higher taxes. The peasant became extremely angered, since they didn't have much wealth, & responded by revolting.
The Estates-General consisted of three estates; they were the clergy, nobility, & the commoners. Out of the three, the commoners consisted of the largest population, but had the least representation & voice in political affairs. As the French government was in debt, King Louis XVI SUMMONED THEM FROM THE DEAD in 1789, for help with the financial crisis.
Money used to aid American colonists in the American Revolution & large spending by King Louis & Queen Marie were major causes to France's government going into debt before the French Revolution. Due to debt, taxes were raised for the peasants, angering them & giving them justification to revolt.
Enlightenment Ideas influenced the French Revolution in a myriad of ways. As the majority of the French population consisted of peasants, there was only a small percentage of people that actually had rights (liberty, equality, property). When Enlightenment Ideas that stated every born human had natural rights, many of the people that lacked these rights became angered at the French government & acted by revolting.
The Great Fear was a short period in France when peasants revolted against their landlords due to rumours that First & Second Estates were going to overthrow the Third-Estate. The peasants revolts were stopped only after the National Assembly abolished the feudal contracts & created the Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen.
The guillotine was invented by Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin, & was used during the revolution as a more efficient & humane way to kill people. Two of the most well-known people to be beheaded during the revolution were King Louis XVI & Queen Marie.
The Jacobins were lead by Maximiliean Robespierre, & were the radical group during the revolution. They were the voices of the peasants & lower class, & believed that democratic policies would solve France's problems.
Napoleon's rule marked the end to the French Revolution. During the revolution, he had ties with Robespierre & the Jacobins. After Robespierre's execution, Napoleon was put uner house arrest for a short period of time for having connections with him.
The peasants made up more than 80% of the French population. They were treated unfairly by the French government, as they were taxed more than others & treated unequally. They were part of the Third Estates, & thus had little to no participation or representation in the government.
Marquis de Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette was a French man who helped the American colonists fight the British in the American Revolution. In France, he had support & respect from many lower-class citizens because of his devotion to rights & liberty. During the French Revolution, he organized the National Guard to protect the revolution.
Tennis Court Oath
Yes, this was created on a tennis court...so what. Created on June 20, 1789, the Tennis Court Oath was made by the Third Estate, &, after being left out of an Estates-General meeting, stated that they would remain together until a new constitution would be made.
Queen Marie Antoinette
As her husband, King Louis XVI, was a poor ruler, she was usually the one who took charge with political affairs. She was disliked by the public due to her habit of spending large amounts of money at a time when the French government was in debt. She was executed alongside King Louis XVI by a guillotine in 1993.
Rousseau was a French philosopher during the Enlightenment. His ideas of liberty, equality, & a government with limited power influenced the leaders of the French Revolution. He also influenced the United States' Constitution with "The Social Contract".
Reign of Terror
Lead by Robespierre to kill whoever was believed to be an enemy of the revolution, it was one of the most gruesome periods of the revolution. People were publicly executed everyday during the Reign of Terror, but it came to an end after Robespierre's death.
Palace of Versailles
Versailles was built just outside of Paris, & was the home of King Louis XVI, Queen Marie, & other government officials. It was nearly destroyed after the French Revolution, but an architect restored it.
The Women's March was a march from Paris to Versailles. The women who participated demanded bread, since it was extremely overpriced. They also demanded that King Louis XVI & Queen Marie return to Paris to deal with the issues that the French citizens were having.
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