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Jean Piaget

A Concept Map
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on 31 July 2013

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Transcript of Jean Piaget

Jean
Piaget
Major Principles
Biography
Born on August 9, 1896
Died Sept. 17, 1980
Family
Education
Occupation: Psychologist
Birthplace is Neuchatel, Switzerland

Father: Arthur Piaget
Mother: Rebecca Jackson
Wife: Valentin Chatenay
Daughters: Jacqueline and Lucienne
Son: Laurent


-Attended the University of Neuchatel, where he got a degree in zoology in 1918
-Studied psychology under Carl Jung and Eugen Bleuler at the University of Zurich shortly after
-Went to Paris at the University of Sorbonne soon after to study with Alfred Binet
-Piaget noted the correlation between a child's age and the error he was apt to make.
Child Development
According to nndb.com, “children develop self-centric theories about their environment, and about objects or persons in that environment, and they grow
Children base these theories on their own personal experiences interacting with persons and objects in their environment

-According to nndb.com,
-“children develop self-centric theories about their environment, and about objects or persons in that environment, and they grow
-Children base these theories on their own personal experiences interacting with persons and objects in their environment

-The child uses "schemas" to master and gain information about the environment
-The sophistication of a child's cognitive structures increased as the child grew and developed, as did the child's "schemas“” (2013)

“Children moved through certain set stages in their cognitive development.
1) Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old) -- Child interacts with environment through physical actions (sucking, pushing, grabbing, shaking, etc.)
2) Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) -- Child is not yet able to form abstract conceptions, must have hands-on experiences and visual representations in order to form basic conclusions” (nndb, 2013)

Child Development
3) "Concrete operations (ages 7-11) -- Child is develo-
ping considerable knowledge base from physical experiences
4) Formal operations (beginning at ages 11-15) -- Child's knowledge base and cognitive structures are much more similar to those of an adult. Ability for abstract thought increases markedly" (nndb, 2013).

-Assimilation: “a child perceives new objects or events in
terms of existing schemas or operations” (Bhattacharya & Han, 2001)
-Accommodation: “the process of changing internal mental structures to provide consistency with external reality; occurs when existing schemas or operations must be modified or new schemas are created to account for a new experience” (Bhattacharya & Han, 2001)

-Schemata: “the mental representation of an associated set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions” (Bhattacharya & Han, 2001)
-Piaget emphasized that knowledge and
understanding were not simply about ingesting a bunch of facts;
knowledge was about structures, understanding how
the facts fit together, having mental models that allow
one to accurately assimilate additional information and from it make useful predictions and conclusions (nndb, 2013)

1) Pre-assessment-acquire prior knowledge
2) Presentation-how it is taught
3) Process-activities which students engage in
4) Product-how to demonstrate what the students have learned
5) Learning Environment-constructivist in nature

Five Differential Instructions Strategies

Learning theory application in the elementary setting.
Age between 7 through 11.
Ability to use logical thoughts to solve concrete problems.
Students are able to draw conclusions.



Learning Theorist Application in
the Elementary setting


-Determines prior knowledge
-Provides qualitative feedback to students and teacher in area of strength and weaknesses

Pre-Assessment

-Traditional lecture with visual, auditory and hands-on.
-Small group instructions for remedial learning.
-One-on-one instruction
-Computer-based instruction/Simulation
-Higher order teacher questions
-Peer tutoring


Presentation

-Traditional pencil/paper
-Cooperative group stations
-Think Alouds
-Choral Reading
-Independent Learning
-Inquiring learning


Process

Process
-Traditional assessment pencil/paper
-Written report paper for those who are afraid to speak in front of the class.
-Class projects for those students that like to work alone or collaborate with others.
-Oral presentation for those students who are not great in writing.
-Role play for students who are kinesthetic learners
-Class discussion
-Summation


Product

-Create a learning culture norm
-Meet the needs of the students, which includes visual and hearing aids,
manipulatives for hands on learners
-Safe learning environment
-Communicate high expectations
-Exhibit positive attitude
-Give freedom and room to grow
-Authentic activities






Learning Environment

According to Jean Piaget using the constructivist approach…
Assimilation and Accommodation

How does the Learning Theorist relate to
Instructional Planning?

Students assimilate or add information to their existing knowledge called Schema.
Schemas are like filing cabinets with organized similar concepts.
A person learning something new brings to that experience all of their previous knowledge and present mental patterns.
Learning is neither passive nor simply objective.
A person who is truly passive is incapable of learning.


Assimilation

-A student quickly adapts to the school’s apple computer due to prior experience using his or her personal computer at home.
-A student is able to do simple math problems due to prior training in 1st grade.




Assimilation Examples

New information that is not familiar or not stored in the schema is not assimilated.
Student must then accommodate the new information to fit into their schema

Accommodation

-A student has never used a computer before and does not know how to use the school’s Apple computer. Therefore, the student will need time to accommodate to the new computer.
-If a student has not been previously exposed or has internalized and stored in his schema a basic math lesson, frustration and anger may be experienced by the learner at a later time when he needs to use that knowledge.

Accommodation Examples

Piaget emphasized that students should not be exposed to certain new information until they are developmentally and cognitively prepared.
This is helpful when teachers are designing their lesson and assessment plans.

Summary

In addition to the cognitive theory to address diverse learners, teachers can administer the The Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scale (MIDAS) test to determine students learning style.



Summary continued

In addition to the constructivist theory to address diverse learners, teachers can administer the Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scale (MIDAS) test to determine students' learning style.

By
Maria Alberto and Maria Gaffud



Group 2 Presentation

Resources
(2013). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from http:/www.nndb.com/people /359/0000094077/

(n.d.). Cognitive Constructivist Theory. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from http://viking.coe.
uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/cognitiv.htm

(2013). Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved from http://midas-profile.wikispaces.com
/Multiple%20Intelligences

Bhattacharya, K.& Han, S. (2001). Piaget and cognitive development. In M. Orey (Ed.),
Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/

McLeon, S. (2009). Simply psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org
/piaget.html

Ormrod, J.E. (2011). Educational Psychology. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Tomlinson, C. (2013). What is differentiated instruction. Retrieved from http://
www.readingrockets.org/article/263/

Lecture Notes


Sources of Images in the order in which they appeared


Jean Piaget. Retrieved on July 24, 2013, from: http://www.nndb.com/people/359/000094077/piaget-3.jpg
Glasbergen, R. (Cartoonist). (2000). Funny Psychology. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://atapestryofwords.blogspot.com/2011/09/lighter
-side-of-psych-bluffing-it.html
Map of Switzerland. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.mapsofworld.com/switzerland/switzerland-map.gif
Piaget's Family. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.piaget.orgbiography/bio4a.gif
Carl Jung. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.nndb.com/people/910/000031817/carl-jung-1-sized.jpg
Eugen Bleuler. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://media-1.web.britannica.com/eb-media/02/6702-004-484ACED0.jpg
Alfred Binet. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Alfred_Binet.jpg/220px-Alfred_Binet.jpg
Watterson, B. (Cartoonist). Calvin and Hobbes Preoperational Stage. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from: http://www.buildingthepride.com
/faculty/ctrobertson/The%20Concept%20of%20Socialization.htm
Child Development in Different Races. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from: http://www.familiesonlinemagazine.com/cheri4pic.jpg
Multicultural Children in a Colorful Background. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-L3ntL_eyVR4/
T13eS8HcRXI/AAAAAAAACgg/feZLQvTTdAQ/s72-c/9children.jpg
Multicultural Children in a White Backgorund. Retrieved July, 24, 2013, from: http://www.centerforjoyfulliving.net/wp-content/
uploads/2010/09/cute-childen-pictures-jumping-joy-white-background.jpg
Baby with Spartphone. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://cdn.sheknows.com/articles/2013/01/baby-on-smartphone.jpg
Child in a Superman Costume. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/00800/jacob-hunterlamb-4_800946c.jpg
Child with Hat. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://thewe.cc/thewe_/images_5/-/child-labor/10-year-old-roubel.jpe
Girl with Shawl. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://24.media.tumblr.com/6579b035fc373f8bbe1f660966d0e8cctumblr_moo4icPm
Lu1qb8rnio1_500.jpg
Children around the World. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_HbUpRXNj4bM/TUwY2Dwvi7I/
AAAAAAAAAAM/KLclSFUM3u8/s1600/multicultural_kids+pic.jpg
Little Girl Playing with Shapes. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/DM-Resize/photos.demandstudios.com/getty/
article/129/58/86500875.jpg?w=600&h=600&keep_ratio=1
Constructivist Cartoon. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from: http://sarahjpeach.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/multiple-choice-cartoon.png
Einstein Cartoon. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from: http://larrytinnerman.com/Pedagogy/images/stories/math20cartoon.jpg
Asian Students Huddling. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from http://www.nps.gov/fopo/forteachers/images/Sensible-habitats.jpg
Student with Goggles. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: https://cdn.media56.whipplehill.net/ftpimages/261/push/62659/Screen%20shot
%202012-12-18%20at%208.36.31%20AM.png
Students Holding Plants. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.gcmuseum.com/edible-schoolyard/images/002_000.jpg
Students on Computers. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://teachers.saschina.org/evoge/files/2012/08/centers1.jpg
Pre-Assessment. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.youngplaywrightstheater.org/imgs/About/Our_Impact/Assessment%20Language
%20Pre.jpg




Constructivist theory emphasizes that teachers should make classroom activities that require students to solve problems, explore, and construct meaning

How the principles of the learning theorist apply to our
classroom settings (content area, developmental level, etc.)

Instruction must be developmentally appropriate, in this case, in an elementary school setting
Examples: simple science projects for first graders and more complex ones for 6th graders; simple addition for younger grades than older grades; sing and dance for lower grades

Teachers should allow the students to interact with their environment
Example: Mini-field trip outside of the classroom in the school grounds to collect leaves and make observations of different plants and insects


-Enhance logical and conceptual growth
-Solve problems
-Role-play situations
-Complete authentic tasks
-Use technology to differentiate learning
-Have learning centers to meet different types of learners
and intelligence

Resources for Images cont.
Cooperative Group Learning. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.lauracandler.com/images/cooplearn.jpg
Students Raising Their Hands. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.csd509j.net/portals/1/Administration/Clip%20Art%20File/
Photos/Raising%20hands%20in%20front%20of%20chalkboard.png
Elementary Student Oral Presentation. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://www.asi.csus.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/
article-new_ehow_images_a07_as_0v_teach-kids-give-oral-presentation-800x800.jpg
Caution Public Learning Zone. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://davidwarlick.com/images1/Untitled-20110805-141711.png
Jean Piaget with Baby. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m68xepnzcq1qeh4t2o1_400.jpg
Four Children. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from: http://foxhugh.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/hugh-fox-trujillo-peru1.jpg
Toddler with Blue Glasses. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://blog.sfgate.com/sfmoms/files/2011/10/computers-and-kids.jpg
Asian Mother and Student. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://image.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/63814/110263301/
stock-photo-portrait-of-elementary-school-student-learn-to-write-with-his-mother-110263301.jpg
Frustrated Student. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from: http://l.yimg.com/ck/image/A1042/1042432/300_1042432.jpg
Frustrated Boy. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-_LZ8KPTC17Y/UbdP-i_7ZJI/AAAAAAAABIc/j4IlPikn4-k/
s400/5795432_s.jpg






Constructivist Theory
"Humans cannot be "given" information which they immediately understand and use. Instead, humans must "construct" their own knowledge. They build their knowledge through experience. Experiences enable them to create schema" (viking.coe, 2013)
Piagetian principles for teaching and learning
According to viking.coe,
1) Learning is an active process: Direct experience, making errors, and looking for solutions are important for the assimilation and accommodation of information. How information is presented should be noted as well.
2) Learning should be whole, authentic, and "real": Meaning is constructed as children interact in meaningful ways with the world around them. That means less emphasis on isolated "skill" exercises, such as learning punctuation, and more meaningful activities, like editing or writing a school newspaper
Full transcript