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Organic Chemistry

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by

James Wiley

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Organic Chemistry

Compound/Molecule
Introduction to
Organic Chemistry

Basic Chemistry
Organic Molecules
4 Types of Organic Molecules:
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Organic-
Chemistry-
the study of the composition and properties of matter.
Makes up everything, living or non-living!
Living Matter
The study of the composition and properties of LIVING matter
Element
Atom
The smallest unit of an element
pure substance containing 1 type of atom.
Two or more
different elements
combined chemically
Ex: Water (H2O)

2 Hydrogen Atoms

1 Oxygen Atom
+
Oxygen or O2
Organic Molecules
Inorganic Molecules
- Molecules that contain Carbon and Hydrogen atoms
- May also contain: oygen, nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorous.
- Living things are composed of and need organic molecules in order to survive.
- Molecules that do NOT contain Carbon and Hydrogen.
- Examples: H2O
1.
2.
3.
4.

Carbohydrates
Lipids/Fats
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Lipids/Fats
Source:
Purpose:
Breads,
Pastas and Cereals
Grains,
wheat
Fruits and Vegetables
Used for energy!
Fancy word for Sugars
Simple Sugars are converted into ATP during respiration.
How Do I Know I am
Looking at a Carbohydrate?
The name ends in __-__-__
O
S
E
FructOSE
GlucOSE
MaltOSE
SucrOSE
cellulOSE
1
2
3+
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
"Simple Sugar"
"Starch"
Glucose
C H O
Maltose
(2 Glucose)
Sucrose
(Table Sugar)
Cellulose
Chitin
Glycogen
6 12 6
Sugar
One
Sugar
Sugar
Two
Dissacharide-
a sugar with two ______________
Carbon Rings
"Many"
Polysacharide- a sugar with
three or more ______________
Carbon Rings
Monosacharide-
a sugar with one ______________
Carbon Rings
Source:
Purpose:
Purpose:
Source:
Purpose:
Meat
Nuts
Beans
Eggs
Dairy
Fish
1. Make Enzymes
2. Components of cell membranes, hair, nails
3. Hormones - insulin
4. Pigments -
Hemoglobin (Red in Blood)
Chlorophyll (Green in plants)
Melanin (Brown in skin)
6. Antibodies
5. Neurotransmitters -
(immune system)
chemicals released between nerve cells
Building block
A Protein is composed of subunits called _________ _______
amino acids
How Do I Know I am
Looking at a Lipid?
1.
2.
2. Carboxyl Group - one "wing"
3. Hydrogen - off the top or bottom
4. "R" Group - random variable group
1. Amino Group - one "wing"
1
2
3
amino acid
Dipeptide
Polypeptide
glycine
serine
tryptophan
protein
2
protein
3
Insulin
melanin
most proteins are 200-300 amino acids long
The atoms maybe arranged in the shape of an E
A lipid is composed of 4 subunits: 3 fatty acid chains and 1 glycerol
Fats
Oils
Cholesterol
1.

2.

3.

4.
Stored Energy (back-up).
Component of cells membrane
Insulation on nerve cells.
Insulation to keep us warm!
FYI on Fats
1. _________________: is “animal fat” that is very tasty, but very unhealthy.
Ex: butter, Lard---both solid at room temp.
Saturated Fat
2. _________________: is “plant fat” that is not as yummy, but healthier!
Ex: olive oil, canola oil, soy bean oil---liquid at room temp.
Unsaturated Fat
The heredity or genetic material for all life on earth.
C H O N P S
DNA
RNA
- Living things also need inorganic molecules in order to survive.
in-
Not
Fancy Word for fats
Building blocks:
Nucleotides
Source:
synthesized in nucleus
phosphate
sugar
Nitrogen base
Full transcript