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Animal Cell Organelles

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Jesse Varkey

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Animal Cell Organelles

Jesse Varkey Animal Cell Cell Nucleus Large structure surrounded by double membrane, contains nucleous and chromosomes Nucleolus structure involved in the production of ribosomes; robosome subunit assembly Granular body within nucleus;
consists of RNA and protein.
a nucleus has one or more nucleoli material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible as individual chromosomes during cell division. Chromosomes Composed of chromatin; contains genes that govern structure and activity of cell. Chromatin Cytoplasmic Organelles boundary membrane enclosing the cell Plasma Membrane encloses cell contents; regulates movement of materials in and out of the cell; helps maintain cell shape, communicates with other cells
present in prokaryotes as well. Endoplasmic reticulum Network of membraneous sacs and tubes ; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes; has rough and smooth regions. Smooth ER functions in diverse metabolic processes including:
-synthesis of lipids
-metabolism of carbohydrates
-detoxification of drugs and poisons Rough ER Rough because of the ribosomes attached to it contains transport vesicles that transport secretory proteins throughout the cell
Forms secretory proteins such as glycoproteins. Complexes composed of RNA and protein; some attached to ER, some free in cytosol Ribosomes Synthesize proteins in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes stacks of flattened membrane sacs Golgi Complex Modifies proteins, packages secreted proteins and sorts other proteins to vacuoles and other organelles Lysosomes Membranous sacs that contain enzymes to break down ingested materials, secretions, and wastes Vacuoles Membranous sacs that store materials, wastes, water, and maintain hydrostatic pressure; mostly found in plant, fungi, and algae organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as by- product, then converts it to water Peroxisomes sacs consisting of two membranes; inner membrane is folded to from cristae and encloses matrix; the powerhouse of the cell. Mitochondria Site of most reactions of cellular respiration; transformation of energy originating from glucose or lipids into ATP energy Cytoskeleton Microtubules Centrioles Microfilaments Intermediate filaments short projections extending from the surface of cell; covered by plasma membrane made of two central and nine pairs of peripheral microtubules ( 9 + 2 structure) Cilia cell locomotion by sperm cells and some unicellular eukaryotes Flagella Hollow tubes made of subunits of tubulin protein Provide structural support;have role in cell and organelle movement and cell division; components of cilia, flagella, centrioles, and basal bodies Solid, rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin Provide structural support and also plays role in cell and organelle movement and cell division Tough fibers specialized for bearing tension named for its diameter that lies in the middle of microtubules and microfilaments. help stengthen cytoskeleton; stabilize cell shape pair of hollow cylinders located near nucleus; each centriole consists of nine microtubules triplets mitotic spindle forms between centrioles during animal cell division; may anchor and organize microtubule formation in animal cells; not found in plant cells movement of some unicellular organisms;used to move materials on surface of some tissues long projections made of two central and nine pairs of peripheral microtubule ( 9 + 2); extend from surface of cell; covered by plasma membrane Biology 8th Edition, Compbell, Reece Works Cited Eukaryotic Cell Structures and Their Functions -Thomson Learning http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MEF_microfilaments.jpg http://www.lifesci.sussex.ac.uk/home/Julian_Thorpe/TEM29.htm images from Google images search results
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