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History of Type Timeline: 1900 - 1939

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Karen Greenfield

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of History of Type Timeline: 1900 - 1939

1910 - 1919
History of Type Timeline:
1900 - 1939
1920 - 1929
1930 - 1939
Bank Gothic 1930
Rectilinear geometric sans-serif typeface
Designed by Morris Fuller Benton for the American Type Founders (ATF) in 1930.
An exploration of geometric forms
Contemporary with the rectilinear slab serif typeface City by Georg Trump.
The typeface also bears comparison with late-nineteenth-century engraving faces.

Joanna 1930 - 1931
A transitional serif typeface
Designed by Eric Gill (1882–1940) in the period 1930–31, and named for one of his daughters.
Originally designed for proprietary use by Gill's printing shop Hague & Gill.
Produced in a small quantity by the Caslon Foundry for hand composition.
Licensed for public release by the Monotype foundry in 1937.

Stymie 1931
Morris Fuller Benton created the Stymie typeface in 1931 for the American Type Founders (ATF).
Stymie is a reworking of a slab serif type that was popular in Europe at that time, Memphis.
For the past one hundred fifty years, slab serif types (sometimes called Egyptian or Egyptienne-style faces) have been a popular choice for headline text in newspapers, magazines, and advertising.

Times New Roman 1932
A serif typeface commissioned by the British newspaper The Times
Created by Victor Lardent in 1931 at the English branch of Monotype.[1]
Commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing The Times for being badly printed and typographically antiquated.[2]
Supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of The Times...
Morison's revision became known as Times New Roman and made its debut in the 3 October 1932 issue of The Times newspaper.

Rockwell 1934

Bernhardt Modern 1937
Peignot 1937
Sans-serif display typeface, designed by A. M. Cassandre in 1937.
Commissioned by the French foundry Deberny & Peignot.
Notable for not having a traditional lowercase, but in its place a "multi-case" combining traditional lowercase and small capital characters.
Popular in poster and advertising publishing from its release through the late 1940s.
Usage declined with the growth of the International Typographic Style which favored less decorative, more objective typefaces like Akzidenz-Grotesk.

Bell Gothic 1938
A realist sans-serif typeface designed by Chauncey H. Griffith in 1938, head of the typographic development program at the Mergenthaler Linotype Company.
Commissioned by AT&T as a proprietary typeface for use in telephone directories (and should not be confused with the Bell typeface, designed for the British typefounder and publisher John Bell (1746-1831) by the punchcutter Richard Austin).

Copperplate Gothic 1901
Source: GearedBull
This typeface was designed in 1901 by Frederic W. Goudy and was released by the American Type Founders. It's design is reminiscent of stone carving and Victorian display types. Even though it is coined a Gothic typeface (sans serif), Copperplate has glyphic serifs that emphasize the thick horizontal and vertical strokes. This type is most often seen at banks and law offices.
Source: GearedBull
Franklin Gothic 1902
Franklin Gothic was designed in 1902 by Morris Fuller Benton. It was released in 1905 by ATF. It is considered a realist sans serif typeface. It is suspected that Franklin Gothic was influenced by Berthold's Akzidensz-Grotesk, but there is no hard evidence to support this. This type was named in honor of Benjamin Franklin.
News Gothic 1908
News Gothic is another typeface designed Morris Fuller Benton. It was released by the AFT in 1908. It is considered a realist sans serif typeface. News Gothic is similar to Franklin Gothic in structure and proportion. This typeface follows the grotesque model. Adobe, Monotype, Linotype, Bitstream and The Font Bureau have all revived this typeface.
Source: Liftarn
Influential Stylistic Periods
Artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century
Emphasized contemporary themes that related to the future
Art Nouveau:
French for "new art"
Inspired by natural forms and structures
Most popular from 1890-1910
Typography Referenced, pg 18
Influential Type Designers
Frederic Goudy: 1865 - 1899
Self taught
One of America's most well-know type designers
Morris Fuller Benton: 1872 - 1948
Headed ATF type development program for 30 years
Stanley Morison: 1889 - 1967
Victor Hammer: 1882 - 1967
Georg Trump: 1895 - 1985
Jan Tschichold: 1902 - 1974
Typography Referenced, pg 13
Important Type Foundries
American Type Founders:
Founded in 1892
Most prolific years: 1900-1935
Built foundation of U.S. type design
Lanston Monotype Machine Company
Founded in Washington D.C. in 1896
Typography Referenced, pg 16
Century School
Morris Fuller Benton created this typeface in 1915. Before creating Century School, he spent his time researching vision and reading comprehension of children because a textbook publishing company requested an easy to read typeface. The purpose and main use of this typeface is for children's schoolbooks. Century School is a serif typeface and is classified as old style.
Typography Referenced, page 18, by Allan Haley and Kathryn Henderson
Goudy Old Style
In 1915 Frederic W. Goudy designed Goudy Old Style for the American Type Founders. This typeface is an old-style classic serif that can be used for both text and display purposes. It is actually considered to be one of the most legible serif typefaces for print media. Goudy was not satisfied with his design of the typeface, but today it is considered his most popular typeface.
Typography Referenced, page 18, by Allan Haley and Kathryn Henderson
Type Designers Born in 1910-1919
Roger Excoffon (1910-1983)
Mistral, Antique Olive
Tony Stan (1917-1988)
affiliations with International Typeface Corporation and Photo-Lettering, Inc.
ITC Berkeley Old Style, ITC Garamond, ITC Century, ITC Cheltenham
Freeman Craw (1917- )
VP for Tri-Arts Press where he created some of the US's most important printed material
Craw Clarendon, Craw Modern
Typography Referenced, page 19, by Allan Haley and Kathryn Henderson
Type Designers Born in 1910-1919
Herb Lubalin (1918-1981)
designed logotypes, posters, magazines, advertising, packaging
ITC Lubalin Graph, ITC Ronda, ITC Avant Garde
Herman Zapf (1918- )
considered one of the most famous and successful calligraphers
ITC Zapf Chancery, Zapfino, ITC Zapf Dingbats
Typography Referenced, page 19, by Allan Haley and Kathryn Henderson
Influential Stylistic Periods
started in Italy (1909-1916)
focuses on concepts of the future (speed, technology, youth and violence, airplanes, and cars)
included all art forms (graphic design, interior design, fashion, theater, painting, etc.
Zurich Switzerland, 1916
anti-war (WW1), anti-bourgeois
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain
Morris Fuller Benton created Souvenir in 1914. It follows the characteristics of old style serif typefaces. The typeface is known for being light, having rounded serifs, and having little contrast between strokes.
Originally Bruce Rogers was designing Centaur for the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1914. Centaur is old style serif typeface belonging to the humanist type family.
Typeface Classification
Old Style
greater contrast between thick and thin stokes
more refined compared to the Humanist style
ascenders have a more wedged shape
letter forms are in a more perpendicular position compared to the Humanist style
first italic type (1501)


Cooper Black
Cooper black was designed in 1921 by Oswald Cooper and was released in 1922 under the Barnhart Brothers & Spindler type foundry.

Made to be a very bold weight of Cooper Old Style
It was particularly popular in Chicago (where it was invented) and the Midwest
Heavily influenced by the Art Deco style, which began in Paris in the 1920s and spread to typography and art in general
Advertised "for far-sighted printers with near-sighted customers"
Also known as the "black menace" by those who disliked it


Neuland, a German sans serif display typeface, was designed in 1923 by Rudolf Koch for the Klingspor Type Foundry.
Koch carved the type into metal to design, so the original version had a lot of size inconsistency
Today it is known for its primitive or exotic look, ie. Jurassic Park logo
Neuland is often referred to now as one of the 'worst' fonts, due to its 'cheesy' and 'child-like' look
It's often used in theme parks and other such heavily themed works


Gill Sans
Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill in 1926. His goal, after studying under Edward Johnston (who invented the typeface used for the London Underground), was to make the ultimate legible sans-serif typeface.

It was first used on Douglas Cleverdon's bookshop where Eric Gill painted the window in capital type which would become Gill Sans
Stanley Morison commissioned Gill to create a complete font family to compete with the Erbar, Futura and Kabel families
Gill Sans was later released in 1928 by Monotype Corporation


Morris Fuller Benton designed Broadway, a decorative typeface, in 1927 for the ATF.
Originally it was a capitals-only display face
It had a long run of popularity before ATF discontinued it in 1954, though it was eventually rediscovered and reinvented
Sometimes known to be THE top art deco typeface
Used to evoke the mood of the 1920s and 1930s

Futura, a geometric sans-serif typeface, was designed by Paul Renner in 1927 and has since become one of the most popular typefaces in the world.
Designed as a contribution on the New Frankfurt-project.
It's geometric shapes represent the Bauhaus design style of 1919-1933.
Commissioned by the Bauer Type Foundry in reaction to Ludwig & Mayer's typeface Erbar

Kabel, a geometric sans serif, was designed in 1927 by Rudolf Koch for the Klingspor foundry.

It's not 'Kabel' in relation to the newly built trans-Atlantic cable (though this is
It's geometric shapes represent the Bauhaus design style of 1919-1933.
Commissioned by the Bauer Type Foundry in reaction to Ludwig & Mayer's typeface Erbar
Used in NBC's logotypes and in the board game Monopoly

A serif typeface belonging to the classification slab serif, or Egyptian, (unbracketed serifs and similar in weight to the horizontal strokes of the letters).
Re-designed at the Monotype foundry's in-house design studio in 1934.[1]
Supervised by Frank Hinman Pierpont.
Slab serifs are similar in form and in typographic voice to realist sans-serifs like Akzidenz Grotesk or Franklin Gothic.
Rockwell is geometric, its upper- and lowercase O more of a circle than an ellipse. A serif at the apex of uppercase A is distinct. The lowercase a is two-story, somewhat incongruous for a geometrically drawn typeface.
An old style classification serif typeface designed by Lucian Bernhard in 1937 for the American Type Founders (ATF).
ATF's response to the many popular old style engraving faces of the early 20th century.
A somewhat decorative text typeface, it is distinct for its low x-height, elongated ascenders, and relatively short descenders giving it an appearance of height without requiring excessive leading.
Serifs are wide and splayed. The lowercase roman g is unusual for having the upper bowl larger than the lower one.
Fordham University, in New York City, currently uses Bernhard Modern as the central typeface of its design identity.
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