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The Periodic Table
Transcript of The Periodic Table
1/25/2013 The Periodic Table What is the Periodic Table? Alkaline-earth Metals Boron Group Transition Metals Carbon Group Nitrogen Group The periodic table is a table of the elements that is arranged by the atomic number of the element. It is arranged with groups and periods to organize the elements. It was organized by Demetri Mendalev. Alkali metals are soft, low-density, silver colored metals. They are extremely reactive due to their one valence electron. They are actually less dense than water. Alkaline-earth metals silver colored and less dense than the alkali metals. They are less reactive than the alkali metals because they have two valence electrons instead of one. The transition metals are shiny, good conductors of thermal and electric energy, high density and melting points (except mercury). They are less than group one and two, yet they also have 1 and 2 valence electrons. The boron group contains one metalloid and four metals. They are solid at room temperature and reactive because of their 3 valence electrons. The carbon group contains one non metal, two metalloids, and two metals. Reactivity varies among the elements because of the 4 valence electrons. They are all solid at room temperature. The nitrogen group contains two nonmetals, two metalloids, and one metal. There are five valence electrons and the reactivity varies among the elements. Most of the elements in this group are solid at room temperature except nitrogen. Alkali Metals Oxygen Group The oxygen group contains three nonmetals, one metalloid, and one metal. Their reactivity varies, even though they have 5 valence electrons. All but oxygen are solid at room temperature. Halogens The halogens are all nonmetals. The are very reactive because they all have 7 valence electrons. They are poor conductors of electricity and react violently with alkali metals to form salts. The are so reactive that they are never found uncombined in a nature. Noble Gases The noble gases are nonmetals that are very nonreactive. They are known as the noble gases for this property and have a full electron shell. They are all colorless and odorless at room temperature. When high voltages are applied to noble gases they give off light, this property of theirs is used in neon lights. Hydrogen Hydrogen is the lightest element and has only one electron and proton. In its natural form it does not contain any neutrons. It is the most abundant element on earth. It is reactive and can react explosively with oxygen. It is a colorless and odorless gas at room temperature. Conclusion Cesium Beryllium Plutonium Thallium Germanium Arsenic Tellurium Cesium is an alkali metal with an atomic number of 55 and atomic mass of 132.9. Cesium has 55 electrons and protons with 78 neutrons. It is one of the few elements that will go into liquid state in a warm room (>83f), and it is silvery gold in appearance. Cesium was discovered in 1860 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff. It was the first element to be discovered with a spectroscope. Cesium is an extremely reactive metal and the most alkaline of the elements. It reacts explosively upon contact with water producing cesium hydroxide (CsOH), an extremely strong base that can rapidly corrode glass. Cesium is used in atomic clocks, which are incredibly accurate. The element cesium has a very defined "pulse" that is so precise that it will only change one second every 60 million years. Beryllium is an alkaline earth metal. Beryllium has an atomic number of 4 and an atomic weight of 9. Beryllium has 4 electrons and protons with 5 neutrons. It is solid at room temperature and has a boiling point of 2469 C. It is a steel gray color and relatively soft metal that is strong but brittle. Pure beryllium was first isolated from its salts in 1828 by Friederich Wöhler in Germany and, independently, Antoine Bussy in France. Unlike most metals, beryllium is virtually transparent to x-rays and hence it is used in radiation windows for x-ray tubes. Beryllium alloys are used in the aerospace industry as light-weight materials for high performance aircraft, satellites and spacecraft. Beryllium is used as an alloy with copper to make spark-proof tools. Beryllium is also used in nuclear reactors as a reflector and absorber of neutrons, a shield and a moderator.
"Beryllium." Chemicool Periodic Table. Chemicool.com. 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 1/21/2013
<http://www.chemicool.com/elements/beryllium.html>. Plutonium is an actinide metal which is a category under the transition metals. Plutonium has an atomic number of 94 (it also has 94 electrons and protons) and an average atomic weight of 244 because there are no stable isotopes. It is a dense silvery white metal with a boiling point of 3230 C. Plutonium was first produced in 1940 by Glenn Seaborg, Edwin McMillan, Joseph Kennedy, and Arthur Wahl. It was the second synthetic transuranium element of the actinide series to be discovered. Plutonium-239, which can undergo nuclear chain reactions, is used in nuclear bombs and nuclear reactors. Plutonium-238 is used as a long-lived heat and power source for space probes. (Its intrinsic heat output is approximately 0.5 watts per gram.) The Pioneer and Voyager space probes used plutonium-238 nuclear batteries as a power source. Three radioisotope heater units (each containing 2.7 grams of plutonium-238 dioxide) were used as heat sources on the Pathfinder Mars robot lander. Each radioisotope heater unit produces about one watt of heat. Early pacemaker batteries also used tiny amounts of plutonium-238
"Plutonium." Chemicool Periodic Table. Chemicool.com. 08 Oct. 2012. Web. 1/21/2013
<http://www.chemicool.com/elements/plutonium.html>. Thallium is a metal in the boron group. thallium has an atomic number of 81 and an atomic weight of 204.3. Thallium has 81 electrons and protons with 124 neutrons. It has a boiling point of 1473 C. It is a soft, silvery gray metal and is relatively dense. Thallium was discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861, in London. Thallium sulfate, which is odorless and colorless, was used as a rat poison and as an insecticide. This use has been discontinued in some countries, including the USA. Thallium sulfide is used in photocells because its electrical conductivity increases on exposure to infrared light. Thallium oxide is used to make glass that has a high index of refraction. Thallium is also used in gamma radiation detection equipment. http://www.chemicool.com/elements/thallium.html Germanium is a metalloid under the carbon group. Germanium has an atomic number of 32 and an atomic weight of 72.6. Germanium has 32 electrons and protons with 41 neutrons. Germanium has a boiling point of 2839 C. It is a shiny grayish white and brittle metal. Germanium was discovered by Clemens A. Winkler in 1886, in Germany, in a mineral sample from a silver mine. The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor. Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits. It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst. It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors. Arsenic is a metalloid under the nitrogen group. It has an atomic number of 33 and an atomic weight of 74.9. Arsenic has 33 electrons and protons with 42 neutrons. Arsenic has It has a boiling point of 603 C. Gray arsenic is the most common. It has a metallic sheen and conducts electricity. Yellow arsenic is a poor electrical conductor and does not have a metallic sheen. It is prepared by cooling gray arsenic vapor in liquid air. It reverts to gray arsenic at room temperature. Black arsenic can be prepared by cooling arsenic vapor at 100 C – 200 C. It is glassy, brittle and a poor electrical conductor. Arsenic has been known since antiquity in its sulfide compound. As a result of its toxicity, arsenic compounds are used in wood preservation and insecticides. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a semiconductor used in laser diodes and LEDs. Small amounts of arsenic (less than two percent) can be used in lead alloys for ammunition. Despite its potential toxicity, arsenic is also an essential element, necessary to our physiology. A level of 0.00001% is needed for growth and for a healthy nervous system. Chlorine Chlorine Xenon Tellurium is a metalloid in the oxygen group. It has an atomic number of 52 and an atomic weight of 127.6. It has 52 electrons and protons with about 78 neutrons. It has a boiling point 990 C. It is silvery, lusterous, and brittle. In 1798, Klaproth publicly confirmed the existence of a new element in the sample sent to him by Muller. Klaproth named the new element tellurium. The name comes from the Latin word ‘tellus’ meaning Earth. Tellurium is alloyed with copper and stainless steel to make these metals more workable. It is added at very low levels to lead to decreases the corrosive action of sulfuric acid in batteries and to improve the lead’s strength and hardness. Tellurium is used as a coloring agent in ceramics. Tellurium is also used in the electronics industry, for example with cadmium and mercury to form photosensitive semiconductors. Chlorine is a gas under the halogen group. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17 and an atomic weight of 35. Chlorine has 17 electrons and protons with 18 neutrons in its most common isotope. Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas and smells like bleach. Chlorine is not found free in nature as it combines readily with nearly all other elements. Chlorine occurs in nature mainly as common salt (NaCl). Chlorine was first produced in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in Sweden. Scheele collected the gas released by the reaction of pyrolusite [manganese dioxide] with spiritus salis (hydrochloric acid). Chlorine is used for producing safe drinking water. Chlorinated compounds are used mostly for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Other uses of chlorine compounds include dyestuffs, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints and plastics. Xenon is a rare noble gas. It has an atomic number 54 and atomic weight of 131. Xenon has 54 electrons and protons with 78 neutrons. Xenon is a colorless and odorless gas, but glows violet when high voltages are applied. It is inert in its natural form, but when combined with oxygen and fluorine it is has high oxidizing properties making it explosive. Xenon was discovered in 1898, in London, by William Ramsay and Morris Travers. Xenon is used in photographic flashes, in high pressure arc lamps for motion picture projection, and in high pressure arc lamps to produce ultraviolet light. It is used in instruments for radiation detection, e.g., neutron and X-ray counters and bubble chambers. Xenon is used in medicine as a general anesthetic and in medical imaging. Modern ion thrusters for space travel use xenon for a propellant, so there is no risk of the explosions associated with chemical propulsion. Resources: www.chemicool.com
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