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The Rise of Democratic Ideas

A brief overview of Ancient Greece and Rome, Judeo-Christian Tradition, Democracy in England, and Enlightenment ....

Brian Hamm

on 16 September 2011

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Transcript of The Rise of Democratic Ideas

The Rise of Democratic Ideas POwer and Authority Revolution Cultural Interaction -The Greeks developed democracy, and the Romans added representative government. The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome Athens Builds a LImited Democracy -2000 b.c. Greeks establish cities-states that are operated by GOVERNMENTS. These took primarily 3 forms: 1. Monarchy: ruled by a single person. Eg. King, Queen, or Monarch. 2. Aristocracy: A small group of noble, land owning families. 3. Oligarchy: a few powerful people. Building a Democracy -Athens becomes the largest and most powerful city-state in Greece. Citizens participate in governmental decisions. -Each year citizens elected 3 nobles to rule the city state. -After a year of service nobles become
members of the larger council of advisers. 600 B.C. Athens suffers severe economic problems. Poor Farmers pledge their crops,
then land,
then lives
to wealthy landowners to pay debts. Wise men of Greece Solon 594 B.C. 1. Outlaws Slavery 2. Cancels farmers debt 3. Established 4 classes of citizenship:
- based on wealth
- All males could vote 4. Created the council of 400 Result: a. Athens was still a limited democracy b. only 1/10 of the population could participate in government c. Athenian law denied citizenship to
women, slaves, and foreign residents Cleisthenes 508 B.C.
"Founder of Democracy" 1. Reorganized the balance of power
between rich and poor 2. Increased power of the assembly and citizens
by allowing them to submitt laws for debate and passage Pericles 461 B.C. 1. Enabled poorer citizens to participate 2. Increased citizen participation 3. Evolved Athens into a "Direct Democracy" a. Citizens rule and make laws "directly" b. Shifted power from the minority to the people Greek Philosophers Based their their philosophies on
the following assumptions: a. The Universe is put together in an orderly way
and is subject to absolute and unchanging laws b. People can understand these laws
through logic and reason. Socrates - Developed the Socriatic Method:
a questions and answer approach to education Plato -Author of the "Republic" -Wanted society to be governed not my the rich
but the most wisest, "Philosopher Kings." Aristotle -Author of "politics" -believed man to be a political animal in nature Greek Legacy 1. Developed direct democracy so citizens could participate in political deciions. 2. First to develop 3 levels of government:

i. Legislative branch: to pass laws

ii. Executive branch: carry out laws

iii. Judicial branch to settle disputes about laws rome develops a republic From Kingdom to Republic -Republic: a form of government in which power rests with
citizens who have a right to elect leaders who make
government decisions. An "Indirect Democracy." -Citizenship was only granted to "free born' males The Particians: Aristocratic landowners who held most of the power

- inherited their power and social status The Plebeians: Common farmers, articians, and merchants.

- could vote but could not hold important gov't positions Twelve Tables - Written code of law created from Plebeian pressure - 451 B.C. ten officials began construcing the written law
which was carved on 12 tablets and displayed for all to see - Establishes the idea that all free citizens had the right to protection
of the law and that laws would be administered fairly Republican Government -Established seperate 2 branches of gov't 1. Consuls: Comanded the army and directed the government 2. Senate: Controlled foreign and financial policies and advised the Consul. Made up of Patricians. - In times of crisis the Republic provided a dictator to lead - Collapsed in 27 B.C. and Rome became under rule of an Emperor. Roman Law - Should be based on principles of reason and justice and protect citizens and their property -Applied to all people regardless of nationality Important principles of Roman Law:

1. All citizens had right to equal treatment

2. Considered innocent until proven guilty

3. Burden of proof rests with the accuser

4. Any unfair law could be set aside A Written Legal Code Emperor Justinian Compiled all Roman Law into "The Code" 1. "The Digest": a summary of legal opinions 2. "The Institutes": a text for law students 3. "The Novellae": Contained laws passed since 534 - Became the guide on legal matters throughout Western Europe Judeo-Christian Tradition judaism - Much of our Knowledge of the Jews come from the Hebrew bible, "The Torah," which is the "Old Teestament" to Christians. - In the Torah, God commanded Abraham, to be the "father" of the Hebrew people and move them to Canaan, an area of ancient Palestine. 1800 B.C. - While other religious groups were polytheists, the Hebrews were monotheists. They believed in one god, who was all knowing, powerful, and eternal. - They believed it was God's wish for man to live moral lives and given man moral freedom and therefore was responsible for the choices he or she made. - The Jews believe they are created in God's image , as the "Old Testament" states,, and interpreted this to mean that all men have a devine spark within them that can never be removed. Jewish law and morality - Like the Romans and Greeks the Jews had a written code of law. The Ten Commandments - The bible states that God gave this code to Moses on Mount Sinai. - These Hebrew codes focused more on morality and ethics than politics. -In the 8th century there was a emergence of prophets who were leaders and teachers who were believed by Jews to be the messengers of god and spread the word of god by opposing war, oppression, and greed. - This greatly increased Jewish social conscience that became a part of western tradition. christianity - As Rome expanded to encompass Judea, home of the Jews, in around 6 B.C. a pivitol Christian event occured. - Jesus of Nazareth was born, as a Jew and a Roman subject. - He began his public ministry at the age of 30 and his preaching contained ideas from Jewish tradition. He emphasized a personal relationship with God. Teachings of christianity - Moved beyond morality and towards a love for God, ones Neighbors, their enimies, and themselves. - Jesus also preached that those who repented their sins would find life after death in the eternal Kingdom with God. - 29 A.D Jesus is crucified by the Romans who considered him a threat as he was considered the "King of the Jews." - Three days later Jesus rose from the dead and ascended into heaven. - Jesus's followers became known as "Christians" and their religion Christianity, preached him to be the Messiah or Savior of man. spread of Christianity - After Jesus's death his followers spread the word throughout the Roman empire. - Paul, the apostle, preached throughout the Mediterranean that Jesus was the son of God and had died for man's sins. -St. Paul of Tarus, stressed that Christianity was a universal religion that welcomed all men and women, regardless of faith. - St. Paul preached the equality of all, a belief central to democracy. Rome spreads Judeo-christian ideas - At first the Roman empire resisted Christianity but eventually encouraged the spread of the religion in 2 ways: 1. In the first century the Jews were exiled from their homeland. This was called the Diaspora. The Jews spread throughout the world where they shared their beliefs that all people had the right to dignity and justice. 2. Despite Roman persecution fo Christians, Christianity became a powerful religion of the empire because of its universal appeal. By 380 A.D Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire. Islam -Emereged as popular religion in 600 A.D - Based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. - Muhammad's teachings, which Muslims believe to be the word of God, are found in the Qur'an. - These empasized the dignity of all human beings and the brotherhood of all people. - Muslims are required to offer charity to those in need. - Rulers had to obey the same laws as their subjects and to show tolerance for the religious practices of Jews and Christians. The legacy of Monotheistic religions - Critical to the shaping of democracy was:

1. The duty of the individual and the community to combat opression.

2. The worth of the individual.

3. The equality of people before God. - These ideas were part of the basis for democratic thinking. Renaissance and Reformation - The Roman Catholic Church developed from Roman Christianity. - In the middle ages the Roman Catholic Church had become the most powerful institution in Europe. - It influenced all aspects of life- religious, social, and political. Renaissance Revives Classical Ideas -In 1300, with the development of the printing press the cultural movement, the Renaissance, that started in Italy spread accross Europe. - Renaissance, French for "rebirth", marked a renewed interest in classical culture. - Renaissance thinkers rejected the medieval view that life was only preperation for the afterlife and were interested in earthly life for its own sake. -Renaissance education prepared men for public service rather service to the Church and were concerned about the lives of all people. -The Greek and Roman ideas of democracy were different from the Oligarchic government ruling at the time. - Individualism became deeply rooted in Western culture during the Renaissance. reformation Challenges church power - The spirit of questioning that started during the Renaissance came to full bloom during the "Reformation." - The Reformation was a religious reform movement that began in the 16th century. - Those who wanted to reform the Catholic Church were called "Protestants," because they protested against the power and abuses of the Church. legacy of the renaissance and reformation - By challenging authority of monarchs and popes, the "Reformation" indirectly contributed to the growth of democracy. - By calling on individuals to interpret the Bible for themselves, it introduced individuals to reading and exposed them to more then just religious ideas. - Both the Renaisssnace and the reformation placed empasis on the importance of the individual. Q: How did the "Renaissance" and the "Reformation" shape ideas about democracy? Q: How were Judeo-Christian ideas spread throughout Europe? Q: What did the prophets teach about injustice and opression? democracy in England develops -England began to develop democratic institutions that limited the power of the Monarchy - Democratic traditions developted in England have influenced many countries throughout the world. Reforms in Medieval England. - In 1066, William, Duke of Normandy in France, invaded England and defeated the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings and claimed the throne of England. This lead to:

1. The end of Feudalism-the politcal and economic system of the middle ages.

2. The beginning of centralized government in England.

3. The development of democracy in England. Juries and common law - Williams successor was King Henry, considered to be one of the most gifted statesmen of the 12th century. - King Henry developed "Jury Trial" as a means of administering royal justice. - This included the judge and jury of peers in the judicial process. - Legal decisions made by the royal justices were used as precedents in new cases, which evolved into "Common Law." - Common law became the basis of legal systems throughout english speaking nations. the magna carta - After king Henry, King Richard the Lion Hearted assumed the throne. Then came King John, who was a very unpopular King.

- King John fought a costly war with France, loosing many holdings and costing the throne much money. King John tried to raise taxes to raise funds.

- This lead to conflict between the nobles and King John and came to a climax in 1215.

- In 1215 nobles presented King John with their demands in the form of " The Magna Carta." Magna carta - The Magna Carta is a major source of traditional English respect for individual righs and liberties.

- The Magna Carta was a contract between the kings and nobles of England that limited the power of the monarchs over their subjects.

- It implied that monarchs had no right to rule in any way they pleased. They had to govern according to the law outlined in the 63 clauses it included. - Clause 12: Indicated that the king had to ask for popular consent before he could tax.

- Clause 39: stated that any person had a right to a jury trial and to the protection under the law.

- This right- to have the law work in known orderly ways- is called "due process of law." Model Parliament -In 1295 King Edward, in need for funds due to costly wars with France, called together the lords, knights, and leading citizens of the towns to gain support and raise funds.

"What affects all, by all should be approved." - King Edward

- This gathering became known as the "Model Parliament"

- 1300, the knights and burgesses gained an official position in the government as they formed the "House of Commons," the lower house of Parliament. - The emergence of Parliament and the House of Commons limited the power of the monarch and established the principle of representation. parliament grows stronger -Parliaments "power of the purse," its righs to approve certain expenses, gave it strong influence in governing. - The "House of Commons," which controlled the purse strings, was becoming equal to the House of the Lords. Conflict with the Monarch - 1600, to assert their power over the lords, Kings claimed not just the right to rule, but the right to rule with absolute power.

- They claimed this power came from God and was known as the "theory of the divine right of kings"

- Believing that they were chosen by god and therefore responsible only to God. King James I, the first stuart King of england -Clashed with Parliament over the rights of the people.

1. Citizens felt the Church of England was too much like the Roman Catholic Church which they had seperated from. King James, the head of the Church objected to this.

2. He ignored Parliamentary courts which used common law.

3. He wanted more money which Parliament refused to grant. Parliament overthrows the king The Petition Of Right Went against the theories of an absolute monarchy and demanded to end: - taxing without parliaments consent

- imprisoning citizens illegally

- housing troops in citizens home

- maintaining a military government in peacetime the petition of right - King Charles agreed to sign the petition to get the funds he wanted but later ignored the commitments secured in the document. - In 1629 King Charles dismissed Parliament and refused to convene it again. - In 1640, when the Scots invaded England, King Charles was forced to call Parliament to get the funds needed to defend the country. Parliament Overthrows the King In 1642, the English Civil War broke out. Royalists
(Cavaliers) Antiroyalists (Parliamentarian) and (Roundheads) vs Oliver Cromwell - The leader of the Parliamentarian revolt won control of the government.

- In 1649, King Charles was condemned as a
"tyrant, murderer and public enemy" and was executed. Establishment of Constitutional Monarchy - Oliver Cromwell established a republic called the "Commonwealth of England"

- While opposed by Royalists and Puritans and unhappy with Parliaments failure to enact his reforms, In 1653 Cromwell dissolved Parliament and created a government called the "Protectorate"

- Cromwell named himself Lord Protectorate, in effect becoming a military dictator the restoration - In 1659 Oliver Cromwell was succeeded by his son Richard but resigned later that year.

- The military dictatorship was increasingly unpopular and in 1660 the new Parliament restored the monarchy and invited Charles Stuart, the son of King Charles I, to take the throne.

- This period became known as the restoration. - Parliament restored its powers and worked to limit the monarchy's
power and extend the Parliaments rights. Habeas Corpus Amendment Act - In 1679, Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Amendment Act, to limit the monarchy and extend its rights.

- Habeas Corpus prevents authorities from detaining a person wrongfully or unjustly.

- Comes from the latin term Habeas Corpus; meaning "you are ordered to have the body" the glorious Revolution - In 1685 after the death of his brother King Charles II, James II became the King.

- He was a Roman Catholic and a believer in the divine right of kings.

- English Protestants were afraid that he wanted England to be Catholic.

- As a result Parliament withdrew their support from James II and offered the crown to his daughter Mary and her husband King William of Orange, the Netherlands. The Glorious revolution - As a result King James II fled to France and King William and Queen Mary became co-rulers of England. - The glorious revolution became a turning point in English constitutional history.

- England was now a constitutional monarchy, in which the powers of the rulers are restricted by the constitution and the laws of the country. English Bill of rights - In 1689, King William and Queen Mary accepted from Parliament the "English Bill of Rights," or formal summary of the rights and liberties believed essential to the people.

- This limited the Monarchy's power and protected free speech in Parliament. English Legacy Magna Carta Bill of Rights Constitutional Monarchy Glorious Revolution The Enlightenment and
Democratic Revolutions The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions - Enlightenment ideas helped bring about the French and American Revolutions. Main Idea Why it matters These revolutions and the documents they produced have inspired other democratic movements. Enlightenment Thinkers and ideas -During the 17th and 18th centuries an intellectual movement called the Enlightenment developed.

- In the 15th and 16th centuries the Scientific Revolution stimulated new ideas about society and government and caused intellectuals to rely on rational thought rather then traditional ideas.

- These intellectualls wanted to apply scientific methods to human affairs. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke - Both considered human nature the role of gevernment.

- Hobbes stated in the "Leviathan," that people by nature selfish and ambitous and needed government to control selfish ambitions.

- Hobbes thought the best way to do so was through an "Absolute Monarchy." Thomas Hobbes - Hobbes believed in a "Social Contract" between the Monarch and members of society would submitt to in order to prevent disorder. - Although Hobbes was a monarchist his concept of the social contract was important to the development of democracy. JOHN LOCKE - Locke believed that all people had the right to life, liberty, and property and believed that it was the governments right to protect mans "natural rights."

- Locke believed the governments power came from people, not from God.

- Locke's ideas about self government inspired people and became the cornerstone of modern democratic thought. Voltaire - was a briliant 18th century French historian that argued in favor of tolerance, freedom of religion, and free speech.

- The French government and Christianity were targets of his criticism. Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Author of "The Social Contract" in which he advocates for democracy where the government responds to the will of the people.

- For Rousseau the only legitimate government came from the consent of the governed. Baron de montesquieu - In " The Spirit of the Laws," Montesquieu argued that any person or group with power wil try to increase it.

- He concluded that liberty was best protected by a "seperation of powers" which divides powers between three branches. 1. Legislature: to make laws
2. Executive: to enforce them
3. Courts: to interpret them THE BEGINNINGS OF DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA -By the mid 17th century 13 colonies had been established in North America. - In1754 Britain and France went to war over control of North America. - The war was called the French and Indian War. - At the same time France and England were fighting the 7 years war in Europe. americans protest british policies - American colonists helped Britain defeat France in the Indian War that ended in 1763 - To protect the new area of the British empire more troops were needed in North America which required more money.

- Britain taxed the colonies by passing the "Stamp Act" in 1765. Many other taxes followed. Americans protest british policies - The colonists, who were not represented in Parliament, protested what tey believed as a violation of their rights as British citizens- there should be no taxation without repesentation.

- The colonists also resentented not being allowed to expand westward. Americans win independence - The colonists opposed each tax measure Parliament imposed and eventually armed themselves against what they called the "British Opression"

- The American Revolution began in 1775 with the battle at Lexington and Concord

- The American Declaration of Independence was issued on July 4, 1776, "Independence Day" American Independence - After 5 years of war, the British army surrendered and the Americans had won their independence. - The new nations exsisted as a loose federation, or union, of states under a plan of government called the "Articles of Confederation." Enlighenment ideas shape the constitution -American leaders met in the summer of 1787 to carve out the Constitution of the United States of America.

- This document served as an inspiration and a model for new democracies around the world for over 200 years. COnstitution of the United states of america - The constructional leaders in the development sought to answer the question: Is it possible to establish a government that is strong and stable but not tyrannical?

- They found that it was possible and created a system in which power and responsibility were shared in a balanced way. COnstitution of the United states of america 1. Firstly they agreed to set up a "respresentitive govenment," in which the citizens elect representatives to make laws and policies for them.

2. Secondly, created a "federal system" in which the power of the government was divided between the federal government and the states governments.

3. Thirdly, within the federal government there was a seperation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judical branches.

- This provided checks and balances to prevent any branch from having too much power. The French Revolution - Under Louis XIV left many unresolved problems, massive debt, and public unrest to his heirs Louis XV and Louis XVI. causes of the revolution -Louis XVI came the throme at the age of 19 in 1774 but was a weak leader who was often dominated by his wife, Marie Antoinette who was Austrian by birth and unpopular with the public. Causes of the revolution - Even though the monarchy was deeply in debt, only commoners paid taxes.

- Many believe the French Revolution was fought to balance the inequalities in french society. CAuses of the revolution - During the 18th century, enlightenment caused people to rethink the structure of society.

- Impressed by the ideas of freedom of speech, the social contract, and revolution in America the French Middle class began to get restless.

- The people were hungry and felt neither the king, nor the nobility cared about their plight. Early reforms of the revolution - In 1789, Louis XVI was about to go bankrupt and sought to raise taxes to save the government.

- He called the Estates General Assembly into session for the first time since 1614.

- Commoners left in protest feeling they were not fairly represented and founded the "National Assembly." Early reforms of the revolution - Eventually, members of the other classes joined in the National Assembly.

- July 14, 1789, the people of Paris stormed the Bastille, a much-hated prison in Paris that symbolized autocratic rule.

- The fight to win democratic freedoms for the people, The French Revolution, had begun. Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen - This document was greatly influenced by the American Decleration fo Independence.

- It guaranteed the rights of "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppresstion."

- It reorganized the Catholic Church and redistributed its land. democratic Reforms Undone - The newly elected Legislative Assembly was not accepted by the king, aristocracy, or many Catholics.

- European absolute monarchs feared the spread of democracy and as a result declared war on France.

- In 1792, the royal family was imprisoned, and a new legislature that was more radical took charge, and the "Reign of Terror" had begun. Reign of terror - People thought to be opponents of the revolution were killed for their beliefs.

- This included the King and Queen. Napoleon Bonaparte - In 1799, Napoloen Bonaparte, a military leader, took control of France and created a dictatorship.

- Not until the mid 1800's did democracy flourish in France.

- The French Revolution illustrates why democracy is hard to achieve. Habeas Corpus Model Parliament
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