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Transcript of PERSONALITY
Organization of Tests
How do psychologists assess personality?
Issues in Personality
The organization of distinguishing characteristics - the way a person
1. Objective Standardized Tests
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
- personality test with given answer sets
- primarily used to test people for mental health issues
Rorschach Inkblot Test
- to examine personality characteristics and emotional functioning
Create alter-egos with any lifestyle, career, and individual personalities
Human personality is complex
OBJECTIVE STANDARDIZED EXAMPLE
More Issues with Personality
Research is directed at trait that is assumed to apply universally across a specific population
Personality vs. Culture
What is a TRAIT?
a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person
Why do psychologists study personality?
To attempt to describe and explain the phenomenon
The Personality Structure - According to Freud
Believed there were 3 structures of our personality that interact with one another
- the subconscious part of our personality that wants only to get its basic needs met
- after the development of the superego, the ego tries to reconcile the demands of both the id and superego
- This is the part of our personality that wants to operate on a moral system
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
- believed that most of what
Freud's Defense Mechanisms
- believed the
ego's method of dealing with the id and superego was to guard against anxiety
through the use of defense methods
Defense Mechanisms in Movies
Examples of Defense Mechanisms
Followers of Freud
- colleague of Freud
- founded Feminist Psychology
- the development of our life is marked by continual crisis in our identity
Behaviorist Ideas about Personality
- based on learning theories
PERSONALITY TESTING ACTIVITY
You will be taking the following tests:
1. The Big Five
2. Type A and Type B Personality
3. Open Ended Jung Scales (Myers-Briggs)
4. Narcissistic Personality Inventory
5. 2 Tests of Your Choice
Personality and Twin Studies
While watching the video, write down facts that support the claim,
Personality and Twin Studies
How could The Sims 3 be used to discover how people perceive their own personality?
To help guide research
To identify and apply
principles that could be used in therapeutic settings
4. Organized tests
- series of questions with set answers such as agree/disagree, true/false
2. Projective Tests
- free response format
- describe an ambigous stimulus
- detect underlying disorders, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to openly describe their thoughts
(but not proven valid)
PROJECTIVE TEST EXAMPLE
- free response test
It's hard to generalize
It's hard to create tests that are valid and reliable
Some individuals may be unique cases
- when the id wants something nothing else matters (Our "Bad Conscience")
- our inner desire for pleasure and self satisfaction
- Our "Good Conscience"
- Urges us to use the morals and values from parents and society
- everything we are
is stored in our
- BUT consciousness makes up a very small part of who we are
- proposed the idea of
- believed there were personality "types"
- The famous Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Test was based off of his findings
- believed the
plays into personality development
- birth order theory
- Thought Freud had a male bias
- "womb envy"
- Ideas of "the self" and the "real self"
-Theory of neurosis
- coined the phrase "identity crisis"
Behavioral psychologists believe that we develop our personality from experiences throughout our lives that were either of rewarding or punishing
The Five Factor Model
- Also called the "
- It is believed that there are 5 categories in determining our personalities (1940s)
: Ranges from being talkative and assertive to passive and reserved
: Ranges from kindness and warmth to hostility and selfishness
: Ranges from organization and thoroughness to carelessness and negligence
: The having the ability or inability to cope with anxiety and negative events
: Ranging from being imaginative curious and creative to having lack of perspective
What Does Humor Say About Our Personality?
1. Coping Mechanism
Dealing with difficulties of life
2. Laughing at Life's Absurdities
3. Self Deprecating "Hate-Me" Humor
Putting yourself down often and constantly humiliating yourself for laughs may be a result of feelings of unworthiness, depression, or anxiety.
, not taking yourself too seriously can be good for you.
4. Insult Comedy "Put-Down" Humor
Making yourself feel better while putting someone else down. This may be a way to use aggression without taking responsibility.
Type A/B Personality
-Personality research from the 1950s-1970s supported the idea of 2 personality types - Type A and Type B
(still widely supported today)
organized, structured, planned, controlling, competitive, status-conscious, goal oriented, and overachieving
laid-back, unplanned, never rushed, easy-going, go with the flow
Personality related health issues
: People with Type A Personalities tend to have a greater chance of heart rated illnesses
An Example from The Big Bang Theory
From this clip, who displays a Type A personality?
Who displays a Type B Personality?
A Changing Personality?
- Personality is believed to be 50% learned 50% innate
- Experts say you can consciously try to change some aspects of your personality but can be
(therapy practices can help)
- We have some traits are believed to be genetically intertwined in our make-up others develop through experience
: From 20-65, it is believed that your positive traits increase and negative traits decrease
- More agreeable, responsible, and emotionally stable
Revealing Positive Traits
Revealing Negative Traits
Psychoanalytic Ideas about Personality
- ideas were developed by Sigmund Freud
- believed heavily in the
- believed the mind (thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories) is mostly hidden
- he used hyponosis and free association to delve into the unconscious
- Freud's method of exploring the unconsious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind
- this method was believed to release
memories, thoughts, and feelings
- the part of our personality that is present at birth and continues to reappear throughout adulthood
- Develops between ages 4 and 5
- Pulls the person to focus on how they "ought" to behave
- develops before the superego
- is able to see reality
- tries to restrain the urges of the id
Personality Development - According to Freud
- believed that personality development is isolated to childhood
- believed that people pass through stages in childhood that influence their personality (called "
Psychosexual Stages of Development
Someone who had an unresolved conflict in one of the stages is said to
in that stage and will thus have some effects on in adulthood.
- reverting back to an infantile stage
- having an unacceptable feeling so they display the opposite behavior
- disguising one's feelings by attributing them to others
- self justifying
- shifting an aggressive impulse onto something more acceptable or less threatening
- transferring an unacceptable behavior into something that is socially valued
- refusing to believe painful realities
Beliefs about Freud Today
- Psychologists today see persoality development as lifelong and
not focused in childhood
- Psycholgists don't believe their is as much "trauma" in childhood that affects adulthood as Freud
- Psychologists also don't use the
- Psychologists believe
is rare and if it does ever happen it is in response to terrible mental trauma.
- Some research does support the idea of defense mechanisms
Ex: False Consensus Effect
Ex: Terror Management Theory
Similar to Freud's idea of "projection"
People tend to see their attitudes in others
People use defense mechanisms to cope with the anxiety of death
Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
- patient views a picture and must tell a story about it
- hoping to see any inner feelings or conflicts from the story
- assumed to be the center of our personality
- the organizer of our thoughts, feelings and actions
- focusing on the self often causes a common psychological occurence called the "
- overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance
- feeling of self worth
- our sense of self competence
- People with high self esteem:
- have fewer sleepless nights
- are less likely to give in to pressure
- more persistent at difficult tasks
- less shy anxious and lonely
People with low self esteem:
- more likely to cut down others
- more likely to have racial predjudice
- excessively critical
- our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably
People accept more responsiblility for good deeds than for bad (successes and failures).
Most people see themselves as better than average.
Individualism vs. Collectivism
1. Id is to Ego as _______ is to _______.
a. unconscious; conscious
b. biology; morality
c. reality; pleasure
d. regression; repression
e. external; internal
2. Freud suggested that in a healthy person:
a. the id is stronger than the ego and the superego
b. the ego is stronger than the id and the superego
c. the superego is stronger than the id and the ego
d. the id and the superego are equally as strong
e. the id, the ego, and the superego are all equally as strong
3. Jordan feels guilty for hurting his younger brother. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Jordan's:
c. Collective unconscious
4. Bruce wants to be a loving husband but also wants to show disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Bruce's ______ might enable him to partially satisfies both desires.
c. Latent content
In each video, identify the
id, the ego, and the superego.
1. According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone in early infancy is:
a. The eyes
b. The mouth
c. The bowels
d. The breasts
e. The urethra
2. Davey is 3 years old and is very compettitive with his father in gaining attention from his mother. Freud would have suggested that he is going through the ________ stage of development.
3. Although Camille has very detailed memories of her high school experiences, she has very little memory of the boyfriend who aburptly brok off their marriage engagement. According to the psychoanalytic theory, it appears that Camille is using the defense mechanism of:
a. reaction formation
4. While Mr. Gomez was going through a difficult divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and give students unusally low grades. A psychoanalyst would likely view his behavior as an example of:
c. reaction formation
he coined the term
- placed a bigger emphasis on social interactions than Freud
- Placed a bigger emphasis on social interaction than Freud
Most would disagree with the idea of sexual instincts and desires that Freud believed in
- Disputed Freud's claims that women had weak superegos
coined these terms
The defense mechanism that underlies all =
This theory has been critisized for the fact that all development according to Freud is
fixed in childhood
Criticisms of Freud's Theory
Operates on the "Pleasure Principle"
Operates on the "Ideal Moral" Principle
Operates on the "Reality Principle"
The Barnum Effect
People have the tendency to attribute very general and vague, positive characteristics of themselves that could be said of anyone and take them as truth.
Ex: Astrology and horoscopes
Ex: the Forer Experiment
Thus, people are very likely to believe invalid personality tests
- Too much confidence can lead to the person's in ability to see their own incompetance.
- pessimism can actually lead to a lowered immune suystem