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Design Synthesis Exercise

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by

Florian Aendekerk

on 28 January 2015

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Transcript of Design Synthesis Exercise

AERIS
Continuously Flying UAV

Mid-Term Review
DSE Group 4
Table of Content
Engineering Strategies
Payload
Ground Station
Aerodynamics
Structures
Propulsion
Power
Engineering Trade-off
Concept Analysis
Mission Analysis
Configurations
RAMS
Business
Emission
Recommendations
Summary

AERIS
Engineering Strategies
Mission Analysis
Payload
Aerodynamics
Battery

AE
rial
R
esearch
I
nspection &
S
urveillance
Recommendations
Conclusion
Initial Wing Sizing
Estimation of Aerodynamic Parameters and Results
Questions
&
Discussion

Airfoil Selection
Hyperspectral camera





Infrared camera
Five Performance Limitations
1. Sizing for Stall Velocity
2. Sizing for Take-Off
3. Sizing for Endurance
4. Sizing for Cruise
5. Sizing for Maximum Load/Turn
Initial Wing Sizing
`
Division in Sections
Obtained Loading Diagrams
Battery type: Li-Ion, Li-S
Energy Densities: 200[Wh/kg], 300[Wh/kg] Minimun charge time: 1 [hr], 4[hr]
Solar cells: thin, light weight, flexible, high efficiency
Solar Cells
Lithium Sulfur battery from Oxis Energy
Additional Elements
Peltier elements: Large thermal differential needed
Active cooling increases efficiency
Different solar cells for the laser
Flying Wing
AR = 7
High Aspect Ratio Glider
Solar cell from Alta Devices
Simplifications
AR = 27
Prandlt Wing
Risk Strategy
Reliability
Availability
Maintainability
Safety
Reliability
Prevention
Resilience -> Risk Strategy
How Reliable -> Availability?
Meet requirements
Bad Weather - Four times a year
Two UAVs
Maintenance during down time
Modular payload
Two UAVs allow for learning curve and more maintenance
Meet Requirements
Parachute + beacon
IR Camera
Landing for storms
Safety Pilots (2)
“Continuous flying Unmanned Aerial Vehicle”
Ground Station
Laser:
Propulsion
Power
Engineering Trade-off
Configurations
Business
Reliability, Availability, Maintenance and Safety
Scripting:
Sizing
Trade-Off
Perf. Analysis
Extended Design
L/D coefficients
Volume components
Mtotal / Mpayload relation

Air seg.: Prop, degradations, structural, thermal
Grnd seg.: Comms, laser

Investigate concepts and trade-off
Extend performance analysis after Trade-off
Autonomous Flight
Stability & Control

Engine Types

-Normal jet engine

-Hydrogen jet engine

-Propeller engine

Propulsive Efficiency
- Efficiency increases when Ve/V0 decreases

- Ve is dependent on:
- blade diameter
- revolutions per minute
- blade angle
- Assumed efficiency = 0.8

Average electric engine = 0.17 [g/W]
Investment costs
2 UAVs
1 Ground Station
Payload: 118,000
Communication: 16,200
Power system: 48,540
Propulsion: 400
Safety: 19,000
Materials & assembly: 25,540

Laser system: 1,000,000
Office supplies: 42,000

Total: 227,680
Total: 1,042,000
Operational costs
Employees: 400,000
Energy: 2,700
Maintenance: 14,000
Laser station: 20,000
Office: 40,000
Data storage: 3,000

Total: 479,700
Business plan
First year:
- Initial investment of 1,269,680
- Pilot project in Zuid-Holland
- Attain 1% of farmers in Zuid-Holland


Second year:
- Attain 3% of farmers in Zuid-Holland
- Pilot project at BAM engineering
Third year:
- Expand to Noord-Holland and Zeeland
- Attain 5% of farmers in Zuid-Holland
- Attain 10 projects at BAM engineering
- Invest in 1 extra ground station
- Invest in 1 extra UAV
Fourth year:
- Focus on expanding to the Netherlands
Fifth year:
- Expansion to all of the provinces
- Attain 1% of the farmers in the Netherlands
- Attain 20 projects in Civil engineering
- Invest in 2 extra ground stations
- Invest in 2 extra UAVs

Detailed monitoring

Natural occurring thermals
Like real gliders use rising hot air to gain altitude
Use infrared imager to find them
Most effective the summer months

Lowering altitude:
Lower pixel pitch > higher resolution
Higher fps

Systems engineering objectives
With the next trade-off in mind:
Find common ground
Explore each architecture
Anticipate learning processes
Work efficiently
The Trade-Off Methodology
Formalized decision-making
Should align with design philosophy:
Value-sensitive
Human welfare
Sustainable development
Iterative, incorporates learning.
Multiple Scoring System
Overall scores expressed as:
Standard weighted sum
Conservative design (bias on low scores)
Aggressive design(bias on high scores)
Highlights potential problems
Challenges engineers and allows for learning
Performance Parameters
Trade-Off Results

External Configuration
Internal Configuration
Engine positioning
Propeller
Tail selection
Energy harvesting devices
Energy storage
Landing devices
Material
Airfoils
Payload
Communications
Battery and Power Management
Engine
Control systems
Safety
Material
Engines Positioning
Tail selection
Propeller
Traditional
3 Engine
Push propeller
Two boom
Small propeller --> high RPM
Large propeller --> low RPM
T-Tail
Cruciform
High Boom
Data rate vs range
Multiple antennas
Laser
Antennas
Offices
Efficiency
Energy storage
Landing options
Attenuation
Materials
Communications:
Airfoil
Wings & Structure
Net
Runway
Water (belly) landing
Inflatable bouncing shield
Parachute
Payload
Communications
Battery & Power management
Hyperspectral Imager:
Infrared Camera:
Power to engines and payload
High data rate: 33.5 Mb/s
LOS 69 km to cover South-Holland
Wing represented as a box

Full aluminium structure

Simplified spars and ribs

Fuselage and tail weight
Structures
High Aspect Ratio Wing
Aspect ratio of 27

Relative high internal moment

Narrow fuselage

Normal tail
Prandtl Wing
Approached tandem configuration for structural weight

Tail sizing included in wing sizing

Relative low bending moments
small wing span
2 connection points to fuselage
Safety
Flying wing
Low aspect ratio of 7

Low structural loads

No fuselage or tail

Wing twist not taken into account
Zeppelin Concept
Envelope thickness set 0.1 mm

Envelope mass assumed to be 50 % of the total structural mass

Bird strike damage not investigated
AR = 10
Different Types of Airfoils
Selection Criteria
1. Maximum Lift Coefficient
2. High L/D ratio
3. Highest lift curve slope
4. Highest stall angle
5. Proper stall quality
6. LE radius, t/c ratio etc
Years
Euro
Baseline Results
Challenges
[W/N]
[N/m^2]

Years
Euro
Costs and Revenues
Lift = Difference in density of air and Hydrogen
Drag = Roughly estimated using existing Zeppelin
Zeppelin
Zeppelin Drag Coeff. = 0.070
Full transcript