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Anatomy

Everything we learn in PDBio 220 at BYU in a chart
by

BreAnna Hutchinson

on 13 November 2015

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Transcript of Anatomy

Striated
Involuntary
Auto-rhythmic
Fatigue-Resistant
Y-shaped
Fusiform
Organism
Comprised of organ systems
Example: You!

Tissue
M
uscle

E
pithelium

Neurons
Glial Cells
Cardiac
Skeletal
Smooth
Connective Tissue Structure
Cells
Extracellular Matrix
Ground Substance
Protein Fibers
Osteoblasts
Fibroblasts
Adipocytes
Erythrocytes
Chondrocytes
N
ervous

C
onnective

Gel-like
Water
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Collagen
Reticular
Elastic
Structural
Functional
Unipolar
Bipolar
Multipolar
General Sensory neurons
Some special senses
Special senses (olfaction, vision)
Uncommon
Most common
Motor neurons
Interneurons
Sensory
(afferent)
Interneurons
(Association
Neurons)
Motor
(efferent)
Axon Hillock
Cell Body/Soma
Dendrites
Myelin Sheath
Neurofibril Node
(Node of Ranvier)
Synaptic Knobs
(axon terminals)
Characteristics:
Excitable - transmits nervous impulses
High metabolic rate
Non-mitotic
Longevity
CNS
PNS
Astrocyte
Oligodendrocyte
Ependymal
Microglial
Schwann
Satellite
Blood-brain barrier
Myelination of multiple axons
Cerebrospinal Fluid
(CSF)
Macrophage
Myelinate portions of single axons
(Neurolemmocyte)
Blood
Bone
Cartilage
Connective Tissue Proper
Plasma
Erythrocytes
(RBCs)
Buffy Coat
~55%
~44% = hematocrit
Males > Females
~1%
Water
92%
Proteins
~7%
Produced by the liver
Solutes
Electrolytes (Ca2+, K+, etc)
Nutrients (glucose)
Respiratory Gasses
Waste Products
Albumins
Globulins
Fibrinogen
Regulatory Proteins
Thrombocytes
Leukocytes
(WBCs)
Granulocytes
Agranulocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
T
B
NK
(Natural Killer)
Helper/CD4
Cytotoxic
Memory
Suppressor/Regulatory
Plasma
Memory
Normoblast
Nucleus
Reticulocyte
Erythrocyte
Compact
Spongy
H
yaline
F
ibrocartilage
Intervertebral discs
Pubic symphysis
Menisci of the knee
E
lastic
Loose
Dense
A
reolar
R
eticular
A
dipose
I
rregular
R
egular
E
lastic
Functional Unit: Osteon
Osteon
Central Canal/
Haversian Canal
Functional Unit: Trabeculae
Pathway of Blood
Right Atrium
Right
Atrioventricular
Valve/
Tricuspid Valve
Right Ventricle
Pulmonary
Semilunar
Valve
Pulmonary
Trunk
Pulmonary
Artery
Pulmonary
Artery
Lung
Lung
Pulmonary
Veins
Pulmonary
Veins
Left Atrium
Left
Atrioventricular/
Bicuspid/
Mitral Valve
Left
Ventricle
Aortic
Semilunar
Valve
Elastic
Arteries
(Aorta)
Muscular
Arteries
(Carotid)
Arterioles
Capillaries
Continuous
Fenestrated
Sinusoid
Venuoles
Medium Veins
Large Veins
(Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava)
Muscle
Fascicle
Myofiber
Myofibril
Myofilament
Biconcave
Transports oxygen/carbon dioxide
Single file=rouleau
E
ars
E
piglottis
Perforating Canal/
Volkmann's Canal
Lamellae
Lacunae
Osteocyte
Canaliculi
Periosteum
Held on by perforating fibers
Lamellae
Endosteum
Lacunae
Osteocyte
Canaliculi
Simple
Pseudostratified Columnar
Stratified
Squamous
Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Located in visceral organs
Responsible for peristalsis & segmentation
Thick
Thin
Actin
Troponin
Tropomyosin
Myosin
Sarcomere
Sarcolemma
Endomysium
Perimysium
NOT PARAMECIUM
Epimysium
Transitional
Organ System
Organ
Consists of cells
Four basic types

Consists of organs
Consists of tissues
# of layers
Cell shape
Diffusion & Filtration
Alveoli
Blood vessels
Serous Membranes
Where did they come from?
Egg + Sperm
Fertilization
Zygote
Cleavage
Morula
Blastocyst
Implantation
E
piblast

H
ypoblast

Bilaminar Disc
Embryoblast/ICM
Trophoblast
Cytotrophoblast
Syncytiotrophoblast
Chorion
Gastrulation
3 Germ Layers
E
ctoderm

M
esoderm

E
ndoderm

Integumentary System
Nervous System
Urinary System
Reproductive System
Digestive System
Respiratory System
Epidermis
Dermis
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
Papillary Layer
Reticular Layer
Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Insula
Cerebrum
Lateral Ventricles
Telencephalon
D
iencephalon
M
esencephalon
M
etencephlon
M
yelencephalon
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Epithalamus
Emotion
Endocrine
Behavior
Temperature Control
Hunger/Thirst
Sleep/Wake
Memory
Autonomic Control
Pineal Gland
Habenular Nuclei
Third Ventricle
Midbrain
Mesencephalic/Cerebral Aquaduct
Cerebral Peduncles
Corpora Quadrigemina
Pons
Cerebellum
Fourth Ventricle
Medulla Oblongata
P
rosencephalon
M
esencephalon
R
hombencephalon
Neural Tube
Neurulation
Primary Brain Vesicles
Secondary Brain Vesicles
Structural
Functional
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Cranial Nerves
Spinal Nerves
Ganglia
Cervical Plexus
Brachial Plexus
Lumbar Plexus
Sacral Plexus
Accessory Nerve XI
Vestibulo-cochlear Nerve VIII
Optic Nerve II
Oculomotor Nerve III
Trochlear Nerve IV
Vagus Nerve X
Hypoglossal Nerve XII
Glosso-pharyngeal Nerve IX
Olfactory Nerve I
Trigeminal Nerve V
Abducens Nerve VI
Facial Nerve VII
Eye
Tongue
Ear
Nose
Sensory/Afferent
Motor/Efferent
Somatic
Visceral
Somatic
Autonomic
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Pathway of Urine
Minor Calyx
Nephron
Nephron
Minor Calyx
Nephron
Nephron
Major Calyx
Minor Calyx
Nephron
Nephron
Minor Calyx
Nephron
Nephron
Major Calyx
Renal Pelvis
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
Pre-ganglionic Neuron
Short
Branched
Myelinated
Post-ganglionic Neuron
Long
Some branches
Unmyelinated
Pre-ganglionic Neuron
Long
Few branches
Myelinated
Development: Week 1
Cells
Consist of organelles
Want to know more? Take Cell Biology

+
Endometrium
=
Placenta
Absorbtion & Secretion
Glands
Kidney Tubules
Digestive System
Uterine Tubes
Absorbtion & Secretion
(Movement)
Protection
Oral Cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Epidermis
Vagina
Anus
Protection
(Movement)
Respiratory System
Distention & Relaxation
Ureters
Bladder
Urethra
Erythropoiesis
Fluid Extracellular Matrix
Thick collagen fibers
Shock absorption
Flexible, but resilient
Most common type
Trachea
Nose
Articular Cartilage
Costal Cartilage
Provides flexibility
Contains elastic fibers
Intercalated Discs
Desmosomes
Gap Junctions
AKA Platelets
Contribute to clotting
Stick to anything sharp
True Cells
Warriors against pathogens
Blood
Tissue
Diapedesis
Chemotaxis
Phagocyte
Live pathogens
Parasites
(Dumps chemicals on them)
Allergies
Histamine & Heparin
Phagocyte
Dead cells & debris
Become macrophages in tissue
Professional warriors
Control immune response
Lymphopoiesis
Hemocytoblast
Lymphoid Stem Cell
B cells
T cells
Lymphoid Stem Cell
Red Bone Marrow
Thymus
=Jerusalem
=Promised Land
Spongy, many blood vessels
Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
Surrounding organs
Adipocytes for energy storage, "fat"
Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
Insulates & cushions organs
Reticular fibers make network
Lymphatic organs
Bone marrow
Parallel collagen fibers
Tendons
Ligaments
Collagen fibers randomly arranged
Dermis
Periosteum
Abundant elastic fibers
Elastic arteries
Bronchial tubes
"Generals"
Activate other cells
"Soldiers"
Kill infected cells
"Historian"
Remembers past infections
Can become reactivated
Calms immune response
Create antibodies which bind to pathogens
"Historian"
Remembers past infections
Can become reactivated
Myogenesis
Mesoderm
Myoblasts
Myofiber
Thrombopoiesis
Hemocytoblast
Myeloid Stem Cell
Megakaryocyte
Thrombocytes
OPA!
Protects & regulates nutrients for soma
Most abundant
Fluid balance
Many classes
Transport fatty molecules
Antibodies (gamma)
Creates Fibrin
Contributes to clots
Hormones
Other control molecules
Can recognize multiple antigens
Attack cancer cells
Corona Radiata Penetration
Zona Pellucida Penetration
Fusion of sperm & oocyte pronuclei
One single cell
Result of fertilization
Cell divisions
(Daughter cells are half as big)
16 cell stage
Means "mulberry"
Occurs day 1 in the uterine tube
Three stages
~100 cells
"immature sac of fluid"
Days 7-10 in the uterine lining
Blastocyst eats its way in
Outer layer
troph- "to nourish"
-blast "immature/forming"
Will form placenta
Fetal half of the placenta
Chorionic vili
Clump of cells on the inside
Will form the embryo - all the cells in our body
Forms the yolk sac
Function: temporary nourishment
Forms the amnion ("water")
Forms all the cells in the body
Skin & Nervous tissue
"Nervous w/o skin"
M
usculoskeletal
U
rogenital
C
onnective tissue
K
ardiovascular
Digestive & Respiratory
"Two tubes"
Tissue: stratified squamous epithelium
K
eratinocytes: protection
Tissue: stratified squamous epithelium
Keratinocytes: protection
*Only in thick skin (palms/soles)
Tissue: stratified squamous epithelium
K
eratinocytes: protection
Tissue: stratified squamous epithelium
K
eratinocytes: protection
E
pidermal dendritic (Langerhans) cells: macrophages
Tissue: stratified squamous epithelium
K
eratinocytes: protection
M
elanocytes -> melanin: UV protection
T
actile/Merkel cells: sensory receptors
Tissue: Areolar loose connective tissue proper
Dermal papillae
Tissue: Dense irregular connective tissue proper
Integument
Hair
Exocrine Glands
Vellus
Terminal
Lanugo
Regular body hair
Follicle: space
Root: below stratum corneum
Shaft: above stratum corneum
Goosebumps - arrector pili
Alopecia: hair loss
Hair on head, in pubic & axillary regions
Male pattern baldness: terminal hair -> vellus hair
Soft, downy hair found only on fetuses & premature babies
Sloughed before birth
Apocrine
Merocrine
Sebaceous
Sudoriferous
Have ducts
Secrete product onto an epithelial surface
Thicker sweat
Axillary & pubic regions
Thin, watery sweat
"Sensible persperation"
(Sweat)
(Oil)
Holocrine glands
Produce sebum (oil)
Associated with hair follicles
Located everywhere but palms & soles
Notochord
Induction
:
one structure telling another structure to do something
Ectoderm
Neural Plate
Neural Folds
Neural Groove
Neural Tube
Brain &
Spinal Cord
Personality
Decision Making
Motor Control
Pre-central gyrus - primary somatomotor cortex
Sensory interpretation
Post-central gyrus - primary somatosensory cortex
Olfaction (smell)
Audition (hearing)
Vision
Taste
Homunculus
Pre-central gyrus - primary somatomotor cortex
Motor control - how dextrous/expressive?
Post-central gyrus - primary somatosensory cortex
Sensory information - how sensitive?
Hypodermis below: areolar & adipose loose CTP
**Not part of integument**
Gray Matter
White Matter
Myelinated axons traveling together in tracts
Association tracts: connect lobes of the same hemisphere
"Associate with the same team"
Commissural tracts: connect hemispheres
"Commute;" Corpus Callosum
Projection tracts: connect brain to spinal cord
Unmyelinated cell bodies (soma) and dendrites
Superficial
Some spots deep called nuclei
Hydrocephalus
Hydro-: water
cephal-: head, brain
Thus, "Water on the brain"
Too much CSF
Overactive ependymal cells
Ventricle drainage block
Clusters of cell bodies
Gray matter of PNS
C1-C4
Phrenic nerve
C5-T1
Four nerves
Musculocutaneous
Median
Ulnar
Radial
L1-L4
Femoral nerve
L4-S4
Sciatic nerve
Olfactory Bulb
Olfactory Nerve I
Supporting cells
Basal cells
Regenerate supporting cells & olfactory nerve I
Fibrous tunic
Vascular tunic
Neural tunic
Sweet
Sour
Salty
Bitter
Umami
Incoming info
Gathering data
"Northbound traffic"
"Outside world info"
Conscious senses
Special senses
Skin, muscles, joints
"Inside world info"
Subconscious senses
Organ stretch
Blood pressure
Blood oxygen levels
Outgoing info
Generate responses
"Southbound traffic"
Voluntary responses
Effector: skeletal muscle
Involuntary responses
Effectors:
Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
Glands
"Fight or Flight"
"Rest & Digest"
Post-ganglionic Neuron
Short
Few branches
Unmyelinated
AAR!
Full transcript