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Selection and Organization of ConteNt
Transcript of Selection and Organization of ConteNt
The structure of
subject matter content
The cognitive component is concerned with facts, concepts, principles, hypothesis, theories and laws. The skill component refers to thinking skills as well as manipulative skills while the
affective component is the
realm of values and
Learners seem to acquire general belief systems:
TEAC21 - Teaching
in the Selection
One guiding principle related to subject matter content is to observe the following qualities in the selection and organization of content:
at the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is facts. we can't do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts by constructing an increasinly richer and more sophisticated knowledge base aand by working out a process of conceptual understanding
Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive skill and affective elements
means teaching the content that we ought to teach according to the national standards explicit in the Basic Education Curriculum.
teaching the content in order to realize the goals and objectives of the course as laid down on the Basic Education Curriculum.
what we teach should respond to the needs and interests of the learners.
content includes not only facts but also concepts and values
content fully covers the essentials.
- are sufficiently covered
and are treated in depth.
teacher considers the interest of the learners, their developmental stages and cultural and ethnic background.
it is not meant only to be memorized for test and great and grade purposes. what is learned has a function even after examinations are over.
content is feasible in the sense that the essential content can be covered in the amount of time available for instruction.
here are a few ways cited by a cognitive psychologist (Ormrod, 2000) by which you can help your students:
providing opportunities for experimentation.
presenting the ideas of others.
emphasizing conceptual understanding.
here are some specific strategies that can help you develop conceptual understanding in your students (ormrod, 2000)
organize units around a few core ideas and themes.
explore each topic in depth.
explain how new ideas relate to students own experiences and to things they have previously learned.
ask students to teach to others what they have learned.
using authentic activities.
an idea or an action that can be verified.
categorization of events, places, people, ideas.
educated guesses about relationships (principles)
set of facts, concepts and principles that describe possible underlying unobservable mechanism that regulates human learning, development and behaviour.
– about how the world operates
may not necessarily be accurate beliefs.
these refer to the skills
beyond recall and
this includes fluent thinking, flexible thinking, original thinking and elaborative thinking
is generation of
lots of ideas.
variety of thoughts in the
kinds of ideas generated
thinking that differs from what is gone before. Thought production is away from the obvious and is different from the norm
– embellishes on previous
ideas or plans
– it is narrowing down from many possible thoughts to end up on a single best thought.
is made easier when the
problem is well-defined
• Here are some techniques:
• Break large problems into well-defined ones.
• Distinguish information needed.
• Identify techniques to find needed information
Problems can be solved by using an algorithm or a heuristic strategy
means following specific, step by step instructions
general problem solving strategy for a solution
How can we help our students acquire effective problem- solving strategies? Ormrod (2000) cites a number situations in which they can be used.
• Provide worked-out examples of algorithms being applied
•Help students understand why particular algorithms
are relevant and effective in certain situations.
• When student’s application of algorithm yields an incorrect answer, look closely at the specific steps the student has taken until the trouble spot is located.
For teaching heuristic:
• Give students practice in defining ill-defined problems.
• Teach heuristics that students can use where no algorithms apply.
For teaching both algorithm and heuristics
• Teach problem-solving strategies within
the context of a specific subject area.
• Provide scaffolding for difficult problems.
this type of thinking uses a knowledge of thinking a figure of speech where a word is used in a manner different from its ordinary designation to suggest or imply a parallelism or similarity
it involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy (Beyer, 1985). It takes a variety of forms: verbal reasoning, argument analysis, hypothesis, testing and decision making
evaluating the persuasive techniques found in oral or written language
you are engaged in this critical thinking process when you discriminate between reasons that do and do not support a particular conclusion
it is evaluating the value of data and research results in terms of the methods used to obtain them and their potential relevance to particular conclusions
we are engaged in critical thinking when we weigh the pros and cons of each proposed alternative approach
this type of thinking involves producing something that is both original and worth while (Sternberg, 2003)
What creative thinking behaviours should be developed?
the ability and inclination to wonder about things and mentally explore the new, novel, unique ideas
the ability to speculate about things that are not necessarily based on reality
the ability to produce large quantities of ideas
the ability to look at things from several different perspective or view points
the ability to produce new, novel, unique ideas
the ability to add on to an idea; to give details
– the ability to keep trying to find an answer; to see a task through completion
- courses that are dominantly skills-oriented like Computer, Home Economics and Technology, Physical Education, Music and the like.
Interactive attitudes and values
In the three-level approach to teaching, values are at the apex of the triangle. It is because it is in the teaching of values that the teaching of facts, skills, and concepts become connected to the life of the students, thus acquiring meaning.
Shall we teach values?
Values can be taught, because like any subject matter, they too have a cognitive dimension, in addition to the affective and behavioural dimension. (Aquino, 1990)
when we teach the value of honesty we ask the following questions:
What is meant by honesty?
Why do I have to honest?
you have to feel something towards honesty. You have to be moved towards honesty as preferable to dishonesty.
– you lead an
How can we teach values?
• By deuteron-learning
• By positively reinforcing good behaviour
• By teaching the cognitive component of values in
Divergent thinking vs Convergent thinking