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Cell Theory And The Rejection Of Spontaneous Generation

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michael welsh

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Cell Theory And The Rejection Of Spontaneous Generation

Cell Theory and the Development
of the Microscope Jean Baptiste Van Helmont Jean helped improve Athanasius Kiercher's theory of spontaneous generation. He still agreed that all living organisms come from abiotic or non-living factors; however, he did even further experimenting to proove spontaneous generation. his beliefs strongly influenced his thoughts. One of his experiments to prove spontaneous generation was the following: if you put some wheat seeds with a dirty shirt, within 21 days house mice would appear. His experiment lead to the understanding of how people got the idea of spontaneous generation due to their poor observation skills and little to no technology. Zacharias Jansen Zacharias who in 1595, invented the first compound microscope. This microscope magnified at 3 to 9 times what the object originally looked like. His father, Hans, possibly helped him build this. His brilliant invention lead to better microscopes and without them, other scientist wouldn't have been able to disprove the cell theory. Hans Jansen Hans Jansen who was the father of Zacharias Jansen was believed to have helped build the first compound microscope. He too was a lens maker. Him and his son built the microscope in the 1590's. The invention of the microscope helped lead to further studying/experimenting with organisms and played an important role in disproving spontaneous generation. Robert Hooke Robert, in 1665, looked at a sliver of a cork through a microscope and observed pores or "cells" in it. He believed that these cells were once containers for the "Fiborous threads" or "Noble juices" of a once living cork tree. Robert wrote Micrographia, the first book that described observations seen through a microscope. Robert was the first to use the word "cell" to identify microscopic structures. His idea's/studies helped lead to further use of the word "cell" and how they work Francessco Redi Francessco didn't believe in spontaneous generation. He believed that all living things are produced through insemination (breeding). Around 1668 he experimented with worms and flys and if they came directly from an inanimate object such as meat. After a painstaking 27 days, he concluded from his results that all living things come from living organisms, not inanimate objects. Anton van Leeuwenhoek In 1675, Anton put a droplet of water under his microscope. He discovered protozor or what he called "animalcules". This lead him to further experimenting of these tiny organisms. In 1683, he discovered bacteria. This great discovery is the building blocks of the cell theory. Without the knowing of bacteria, scientist would have never of been able to make the cell theory. Anton was limited to his great discovery and experiments since at the time, there was little to no technology. Lazzaro Spallanzani In 1765, Lazzaro did and experiment by boiling broth in an open container and in a closed container. Afterward he observed that only the container with a closed lid was sterile, but when he opened it, he saw organisms in it. Even further experimenting lead to him discovering that boiling water eventually kills organisms in around a minute at the minimal. He said that there was some "vital principle" and this lead to further researching of how cells actually work. Theodore Schwann Theodore, with his friend Matthias Scheidan, proposed the cell theory. He stated in his theory that the cell is the basic unit of all living things. He also helped disprove the theory of spontaneous generation by showing that heat destroys the "infusoria" needed for putrefaction. Rene Dutrochet Rene was a physiologist who also studied cells. He stated that growth results from both the addition of small new cells, but the increase in volume of cells. In 1837 he discovered that Chlorophyll was a necessary ingredient for photosynthesis. Matthias Schleiden Matthias observed that all plants have cells and is therefore, considered the co-founder of cell theory all together in 1838. He helped establish that all living things contain cells. He also helped create the cell theory with Theodore Schwann. Louis Pasteur Louis lived from 1832-1896. Louis was not interested however in cell theory. He was only interested in the process known as fermentation. Later in life, Louis started to study bacteria. He also at the time devised a method of preventing liquids such as milk from going sour which today is called pasteurization. after further studies and experimenting he wondered where organisms came from (bacteria from Latic acids) Rudolf Virchow Rudolf proposed the idea that "disease was an affliction of the body at large or one of its humor, wanting to find the anatomical location of diseases". He also showed that cell theory applies to diseased tissue and overall, health. He used the Latin phrase "Omnis cellula a cellula" or all cells arise from cells, to summarize the cell theory in 1853. Ernst Ruska Ernst built the first electron microscope in 1931-1933. It was capable of magnifieing up to 400 times. This prototype of the first electron microscope lead to many more studies that associate with cell theory, even to this day. Questions 3. The development of the microscope has played a big role in cell theory. Without it scientist wouldn't be able to experiment to prove cell theory. Today in modern life, I doubt that are knowledge of cells would be like as it is without microscopes. 4. Spontaneous generation was proposed by Aristotle and people such as Athanasius Kircher believed in it as well. People believed in it at the time due to there poor technology and observation skills. Francessco Redi disproved spontaneous generation by experimenting and observing closely if fly come from decayed meat. After 27 harsh, painstaking days he concluded that spontaneous generation is wrong and is not true. 5. I think there was a big gap in cell-discovery during the 1700's due to the lack of technology (mainly the lack of high powered microscopes). Scientist have done and discovered all they could with the use of low powered microscopes until the electron microscope was invented in the 1900's. 6. I think the development of the microscope and the creation of the cell theory support Sir Isaac Newton's saying of how he has been so successful because he had been able to stand on the shoulders of giants. Without so much trial's in disproving spontaneous generation and proving cell theory, it would be hard today to work with cells. The development of the microscope was created with diversity which lead to its success due to the amount how people working on it and making it better throughout history.
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