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Transcript of Grounded Theory
It is theory that will “… fit the situation being researched and work when put into use” (Glaser & Strauss, p. 3)
“a qualitative research design in which the inquirer generates a general explanation (a theory) of a process, action, or interaction shaped by the views of a LARGE number of participants” (Creswell, 2007, p. 63)
Cooney, A. (2011). Rigour and grounded theory. Nurse Researcher, 18(4), 17-22. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (Second Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Cutcliffe, J.R. (2000). Methodological issues in grounded theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(6), 1476-1484. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Eaves, Y. (2001). A synthesis technique for grounded theory data analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35(5), 654-663. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Co.
LaRossa, R. (2005). Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 837-857. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
McCallin, A. (2003). Designing a grounded theory study: some practicalities. Nursing in Critical Care, 8(5), 203-208. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Mills, J., Bonner, A., and Francis, K. (2006). The development of constructivist grounded theory. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 25-35.
Roberts, T. (2008). Understanding grounded theory. British Journal of Midwifery, 16(10), 679-681. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Thomas, G. & James, D. (2006). Reinventing grounded theory: Some questions about theory, ground and discovery. British Educational Research Journal, 32(6), 767-795. Needs to set aside of theoretical ideas do that the substantive theory can emerge.
Must recognize it is a systematic approach; need to follow specific steps.
Is the one that determines when categories are saturated.
Some suggestions are to use “discriminant sampling”
Needs to recognize what is the primary outcome of the study First, is grounded theory appropriate to study your research question?
Second, collect initial data.
Initial questions will focus on: (1) understanding how individuals experience the process; (2) identifying the steps in the process.
Then the researcher returns to participants to ask more detailed questions (Core phenomenon, causal conditions, strategies, and consequences)
Data Collection Data Anaysis Open Coding Axial Coding selective Coding Categories Sub-Categories Central Phenomenon Causal Conditions Strategies Context/intervening Conditions Consequences Explicative Storyline Systematic Procedures (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) Constructivist Approach (Charmaz, 2006) Data Collection Data Analysis Data Collection Data Analysis Oversimplifies complex meanings and interrelationship in data.
Constrains analysis, putting the cart (procedure) before the horse (interpretation).
Depends upon inappropriate claims to explanation and prediction Highlighting the immediate apparent and observable.
"here and now of everyday encounters" limits the concept of power that is possible in the approach.
The development of theory should be more guided by data than limited by it.
Sampling procedures divert attention from the data toward techniques and procedures... "to look for data rather thatn look at data" Thomas & James (2005) Grounded theory is a popular approach used in many fields:
Among other social science fields From a dissertation: Balancing Effort & Achievment
Grading Strategies Categories Identify central phenomenon Balancing Effort & Achievment "[I]nstead of studying one core category, Charmaz advocated for a social constructivist perspective; emphasize diverse local worlds, multiple realities, and the complexitiest of particular worlds, views, and actions" "[P]laces more emphasis on the views, values, beliefs, feeling, assumptions, and ideologies of individuals than on the methods of research..." "[R]esearchers need to go beyond the surface in seeking meaning in the data, searching for and questioning tacit meanings about values, beliefs, and ideologies" (Mills et al, 2006, p. 31) (Creswell, 2007, p. 65) Kathleen C. Charmaz Key Differences Theoretical sensitivity Treatment of the literature Identifying the core category